Carcinoid - types, causes , symptoms, treatment


1. Symptoms of carcinoid

2. Treatment of carcinoid

Carcinoid - is slowly growing potentially malignant neuroendocrine tumors that can secrete hormonally active substances.The tumor may be localized in almost all tissues and organs.5-10% of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract accounted for benign or malignant carcinoid.The most common tumor affects the appendix (more than 50% of the cases), less frequently found in the small intestine (30% of cases), even rarer carcinoid lung, pancreatic, ovarian, bronchial, gall bladder and other organs.

greatest amount of serotonin (a chemical produced by the tumor) isolated tumor located in the ileum, jejunum, and the right half of the colon.Carcinoid stomach, duodenum, pancreas, bronchus and produce much smaller amount of serotonin.

Symptoms of carcinoid

carcinoids are slow-growing tumors.The small size of the tumors, their slow growth, long-term absence of local symptoms long time forced to consider not just whether carcinoid "tumors i

nvisibility."Over time, the malignant nature of pathological tumors has been proven.Such tumors are localized in the small and large intestines, gives metastases in 30-70% of cases, while the survival rate of patients within five years is 50-55%.Most often described cases of single and multiple metastatic carcinoid tumors in the lungs, the various departments of the intestine and liver, peritoneum and regional lymph nodes.

carcinoid symptoms include local symptoms, due to the presence and growth of the tumor itself, and the so-called carcinoid syndrome associated with hormonal activity of the tumor.

carcinoid main manifestations are:

- a sudden rush of blood to the face chest and neck.During such hot flashes in human red upper body, especially the face, neck and neck.In places the tide patients experience fever, burning sensation, numbness.There tachycardia, decreased blood pressure.Many also noted redness of the eyes, accompanied by increased lacrimation.At the beginning of the disease tides do not happen often, can be repeated once a week or even once every few months.Over time, the frequency of hot flushes increases, they become daily, and later can be repeated up to 10-20 times a day.Duration of seizures varies from one to ten minutes.They may begin suddenly, but most often occur as a result of emotional or physical stress, after drinking alcohol, fatty foods and meat, spicy cheese, as well as after taking medicines that increase the release of serotonin.The most frequent and pronounced inflow observed with metastatic carcinoid tumors of the stomach to the liver;

- diarrhea - a characteristic symptom of carcinoid syndrome.This is explained by the increased motility of the small intestine due to the enhanced effect of serotonin.Diarrhea can be very intense, while together with the feces body loses large amounts of water, electrolytes (potassium, calcium, sodium) and protein.Often, patients may develop hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypoproteinemia, hyposalemia, giponatoiemiya;

- bronchospasm - is observed in many patients.Manifested in the form of attacks expiratory dyspnea, when listening to the lungs marked whirring and wheezing;

- endocardial fibrosis - occurs in half of patients.Affects usually right heart.In patients developing circulatory failure type by right ventricular and tricuspid valve, sometimes formed pulmonary stenosis.

Carcinoid of the stomach may be asymptomatic for a long time.This is explained by the fact that the tumor produced by hormonally active substances, getting into the liver enzymes that destroy it.Only after striking liver metastases, the patient develops carcinoid syndrome.

symptoms appear earlier in carcinoid lung and ovarian cancer than in tumor localization in other organs.Since in this case, the substance produced by the tumor into the blood, bypassing the liver.

Treatment of carcinoid

When the tumor is limited to a specific area (eg, carcinoid of the stomach, lung, colon, appendix) only the most effective treatment is surgical removal of carcinoid tumors and metastases.When tumor metastasis in liver surgery is less effective and rarely gives a therapeutic effect.However, the operation helps to alleviate symptoms and extend the life of the patient.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of carcinoid tumors are not practically used because of its low efficiency.

carcinoid Treatment also involves easing symptoms.To reduce discomfort during tidal patients prescribed Phentolamine and Phenothiazines.In particular the strong tides in patients with carcinoid lung prescribed prednisolone.To cope with diarrhea helps Cyproheptadine and Codeine.Antihypertensive drugs are prescribed to lower blood pressure.

to slow down tumor growth using Interferon alfa (Roferon-A, IFN) and Tamoxifen.

only upon successful surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors, and in the absence of metastases, the patient can recover.Otherwise a poor prognosis.

However, due to the slow growth of the tumor, the average life expectancy of patients even without treatment is 5-10 years or more.The cause of death is most often are multiple metastases, intestinal obstruction, heart failure and cachexia.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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