Cardio - forms , causes, symptoms, treatments


1. pathogenesis of the disease

2. symptoms of carditis in children

3. prognosis and treatment of carditis

Cardito are inflammatory lesions of various etiologies of heart,are not associated with rheumatic fever or other systemic nature of the disease.In pediatric appropriateness of the term "Card" proved the possibility of simultaneous destruction of two or three layers of the heart (endo-, myo- or pericarditis).

Today Non-rheumatic carditis diagnosed by specialists in all age groups, but mainly in children during the first years of life.According to the autopsy, the disease is diagnosed in 3-9% of children who had died from various causes.

Cardito arise as a result of various factors, often infectious, among which are the main agents of scarlet fever, diphtheria, sore throat, and coxsackie viruses, rubella and influenza.

In addition, Non-rheumatic carditis are congenital (early and late).Early congenital carditis develop in the children whose mothers were 1-2 months preg

nant ill acute viral or bacterial infection.In turn, late congenital carditis in children are due to infectious diseases that occurred in women in the last weeks of pregnancy.

Congenital carditis is relatively rare.This pathology may be suspected if the newborn state is characterized by pronounced symptoms undergoing intrauterine infection, which is accompanied by a lesion of many organs and systems.

in the development of non-rheumatic carditis play a role bacterial flora, protozoa and fungi infestation.In addition, the disease may be due to an allergic reaction to the administration of drugs, serums, vaccines, and also occur due to various factors, toxic, radiation, physical agents.

modern pediatric practice identifies the following types of carditis in children:

  • congenital and acquired (depending on the period of occurrence);
  • acute, subacute and chronic (according to their etiological accessories and flow character).

In addition, take into account the severity of heart failure, severity of disease, as well as possible complications and outcomes.The pathogenesis of the disease

Non-rheumatic carditis develop as a result of direct cardiotoxic effect of the pathogen with the formation of destructive and inflammatory changes in the membranes of the heart muscle.As a result of the formation of an infectious agent, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antibodies to cardiomyocytes, CEC, which cause the occurrence of allergic reactions.As a result, destructive changes are subject to different structures of the heart, which causes:

  • violation of its microcirculation and vascular permeability;
  • destruction of myofibrils;
  • occurrence of thromboembolism and tissue hypoxia.

combined influence of immunopathological processes and infectious agent, mainly cause of acute carditis.With regard to chronic process, it plays a key role autoimmunity.

symptoms of carditis in children

clinical picture of the disease depends on the age of the patient, the individual characteristics of the organism, as well as on the nature of the disease.Acute rheumatic carditis usually develops in children during the first three years of life as a result of a viral infection.Symptoms of acute carditis forms include:

  • manifestations of intoxication (paleness, tiredness, sweating, loss of appetite, low fever, and others.);
  • pain in the heart;
  • weak, rapid, often arrhythmic pulse;
  • expansion of borders of the heart;
  • lowering blood pressure;
  • rhythm disturbance of cardiac activity, the presence of systolic murmur;
  • pericarditis (in some patients).

In addition to the symptoms of carditis in a short period of time can join and symptoms of acute heart failure, tachycardia, dyspnea, cyanosis of the mucous membranes, palpitations, enlarged liver, stagnant rattling in the lungs and swelling of the extremities.

The treatment carditis clinical symptoms gradually disappear, and reverse development of a pathological process occurs within 3 months from its beginning.In addition, the card can take subacute or chronic course.

Subacute carditis mainly observed in children aged 2 to 5 years.This form of the disease occurs either after acute carditis, either alone long after SARS.

symptoms of carditis subacute forms are:

  • manifestations of intoxication (pallor, fatigue, irritability, and others.)
  • dystrophy;
  • heart failure that develops gradually;
  • arrhythmia, systolic murmur;
  • increase in heart size.

In general, the symptoms of the disease are similar to symptoms of subacute carditis in acute form, but therapy utrudnena since emerged heart failure caused by prolonged destructive changes.As experts point out, the reverse process of development can take place in 1-1.5 years, or subacute carditis becomes chronic.

As for congenital forms of rheumatic carditis in children, they occur either immediately after birth or during the first six months of life.

symptoms of early congenital carditis forms are:

  • small birth weight;
  • fatigue during feeding;
  • unwarranted anxiety;
  • sweating, paleness;
  • cardiomegaly, voiceless heart tones;
  • «heart hump" (protrusion of the heart);
  • progressive heart failure.

addition to manifestations of congenital rheumatic carditis in children include:

  • frequent shortness of breath at rest;
  • cough, aphonia;
  • mild cyanosis;
  • enlargement of the liver;
  • wheezing and crackles in the lungs;
  • edema (tissue pastoznost).

As for late congenital carditis, that it is characterized by:

  • violation of rhythm and conduction of the heart;
  • mild cardiomegaly;
  • loud heart tones;
  • weakly expressed heart failure.

In this form of the disease specialists often observe symptoms of two or even three heart membranes.If untreated, this form he carditis complicated sudden bouts of anxiety, shortness of breath, tachycardia, cyanosis and convulsions.

prognosis and treatment of carditis carditis

Treatment of complex and landmark.In the acute phase of the disease requires treatment in a hospital.What is important is bed rest and a diet rich in vitamins and potassium salts, with severe form of the disease shows oxygen therapy.At the beginning of the treatment of carditis necessarily prescribe antibacterials.And over the years carried out a course of therapy with cardiac glycosides, anti-inflammatory and diuretic funds, as well as vitamins and potassium.In severe cases, corticosteroids are used and carried out anti-arrhythmic treatment.

The outcome of this disease in young children can be cardio or myocardial hypertrophy, sometimes there is adhesive pericarditis, sclerosis in the pulmonary artery or valvular (in complicated).In patients older than 3 years, the disease often leads to complete recovery.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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