Cardiomyopathy - types, causes , treatment


1. Causes of cardiomyopathy

2. Classification

3. Treatment cardiomyopathy

cardiomyopathy - a disease characterized by lesions of the heart muscle, which manifests itself in the form of cardiomegaly,progressive cardiac insufficiency and arrhythmia.The disease is not associated with the tumor, ischemic or inflammatory genesis.

Causes of cardiomyopathy

reliable data on the etiology of primary cardiomyopathies to date, no.Among the most likely causes of cardiomyopathy can be identified earlier transferred myocarditis, loss of cardiomyocytes allergens and toxins, endocrine regulation (adverse effects of growth hormone and catecholamines on cardiac myocytes).

should be noted that a genetic predisposition (genetically determined defect contributing to abnormal development and functioning of the muscle fibers in hypertrophic form of the disease) can also cause cardiomyopathy.In some cases, a cause can act cardiomyopathy impaired immune regulation.


Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) - a form of the disease, in which substantially all of the cavity of the heart expands, the phenomena of hypertrophy and decreased myocardial contractility.The main symptoms of dilated cardiomyopathy may occur as early as age 30 - 35 years.The most likely causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are toxic and infectious exposure;hormonal, metabolic or autoimmune disorders;genetic predisposition.It should be noted that in the 10 - 20% of cases the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy is caused by hereditary predisposition.

disease manifests as of hemodynamic disorders expressed, which in turn are due to the degree of reduction of the pumping function and myocardial contractility, which leads to an increase in pressure in the first cavity in the left heart, and then to the right.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - a form of the disease, for which there is a reduction of ventricular chambers (especially the left), as well as diffuse or limited hypertrophy (thickening) of the myocardium.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is hereditary with autosomal dominant inheritance.Men, regardless of age are more prone to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

notes symmetric or asymmetric hypertrophy of the ventricular muscle layer In this form of the disease.For asymmetric hypertrophy is characterized by thickening of the interventricular septum predominant, and for symmetric - uniform thickening of the ventricle walls.

Depending on the presence of ventricular obstruction distinguish two basic forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: obstructive and non-obstructive.Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized violation of the outflow of blood from the left ventricle, and non-obstructive form - lack of stenotic outflow tract.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) - a form of the disease, characterized by rarely encountered lesion infarction, which occurs usually with interest endocardial, inadequate ventricular diastolic relaxation, as well as a violation of cardiac hemodynamics in the absence of severe myocardial hypertrophy and preserved contractile ability.Expressed eosinophilia

having a toxic property against cardiomyocytes plays an important role in development of the disease.Thus there is necrotic, infiltrative and fibrotic changes in the myocardium, and endocardium thickens.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy - a form of the disease at which the progressive replacement of right ventricular cardiomyocytes fat or fibrous tissue.The disease is accompanied by disturbances of ventricular rhythm of various kinds.It should be noted that the arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy - a disease is a rare and poorly understood.Among the suspected causes of its origin can be identified apoptosis, genetic predisposition, as well as chemical and viral agents.

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy - a form of alcoholic heart disease, which is typical for the half of the people who abuse alcohol.Ethanol and its metabolites in this case are the fundamental factors in the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

Regular stress, unbalanced nutrition (lack of vitamins and proteins), genetic predisposition, changes in the original state of the myocardium can also be causes of the emergence and development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy.Virus infection on the background of a weak immune system may trigger the disease development.However, the severity of cardiac disease is directly related to the amount of alcohol consumed and the duration of intoxication.

Among the most common symptoms of an alcoholic cardiomyopathy can be identified fussiness, verbosity, lack of air, excitement, pain in the heart, increased sweating, cold extremities, feeling of heat throughout the body, high blood pressure, tremor, palpitations (tachycardia), injectionsclera, redness of the skin.

Treatment of cardiomyopathy cardiomyopathy

Treatment is to prevent complications are incompatible with life.Outpatient treatment of cardiomyopathy is used in a stable phase.In severe heart do not respond to paroxysms of tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia, pulmonary edema, thromboembolism.

cardiomyopathy Treatment also includes a reduction in physical activity, avoiding harmful environmental factors and habits, adherence to a particular diet with limited salt intake and animal fats.Compliance with these recommendations reduces the load on the heart muscle and slows the progression of heart failure.

In the treatment of cardiomyopathy, usually prescribe diuretics to reduce systemic venous and pulmonary congestion.Cardiac glycosides are used in violation of contraction and pumping function of the heart muscle.Antiarrhythmic drugs are recommended in order to restore the heart rhythm.Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs help prevent thromboembolic complications.

treatment of cardiomyopathy in severe form may include surgery: septal myotomy with a prosthetic mitral valve or heart transplant.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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