Coronary heart disease - symptoms, treatment , causes


1. Causes of ischemic heart disease

2. symptoms of coronary heart disease

3. course and prognosis

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a diseasewhich develops when there is insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle by the coronary arteries.Experts point out that the cause of coronary heart disease becomes coronary atherosclerosis, the narrowing of the lumen, and plaque formation.The disease may be acute and chronic forms.By the manifestations of coronary heart disease include angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

To date, the disease is becoming the most common cause of disability and death.There are several forms of ischemic heart disease, depending on the severity of oxygen starvation of the heart:

  • «silent» (asymptomatic) form, which does not cause complaints from the patient;
  • exertional angina - is a chronic form of the disease, which is characterized by pain in the chest, shortness of breath during exertion and stress, as w
    ell as the impact of other factors;
  • unstable angina - is angina, which is significantly superior to the power of previous episodes or has new symptoms;
  • arrhythmic form of the disease - a violation of the rhythm of the heart muscle that occurs in acute form and can become chronic;
  • myocardial infarction - is an acute form of the disease, which manifests itself in the withering away of the portion of the heart muscle that triggered thrombus and complete occlusion of its lumen or margin plaque from the coronary artery wall;
  • sudden cardiac death - is a cardiac arrest caused by a sharp decrease in the amount of blood supplied to it as a result of the absolute blockage of large arteries.

These forms may occur independently, or may be superimposed on one another.

Causes of ischemic heart disease

CHD promote causes such as the:

  • hypertension;
  • overweight and poor diet;
  • bad heredity;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • smoking tobacco;
  • diabetes;
  • strong emotional stress and frequent stress.

main cause of coronary heart disease is currently coronary atherosclerosis with the deposition of cholesterol plaques in them and narrowing of arterial lumen.As a result, blood is not able to fully flow to the heart muscle.

At the very beginning of the disease lack of oxygen can occur only during high load (exertional angina).Then, due to worsening heart muscle metabolism and luminal narrowing of coronary arteries, pain is manifested at low loads, and eventually at rest.

Together with angina may develop chronic heart failure, the manifestations of which are swelling and shortness of breath.

In case of sudden plaque rupture may complete coverage of the arterial lumen, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest and sudden death.Importantly, the degree of damage depends on the heart arteries in which occlusion has occurred - larger than it is, the worse consequences.

Myocardial infarction develops when the artery is reduced by at least 75 percent.If there is an abrupt blockage of arteries and the heart does not have time to adjust, there comes a sudden death.

symptoms of coronary disease heart

first symptoms of coronary heart disease, which should pay attention to are the painful attacks in the heart muscle and disruption of the heart rate.The disease progresses very slowly, so it is important to identify the early stages of its development.

important symptom of coronary heart disease is a feeling of discomfort in the chest or back that occurs during physical or emotional stress, and disappears after discontinuation of the load.

Experts say that an important feature of angina is instantaneous (10 - 15 seconds), the disappearance of pain after taking nitroglycerin.

Depending on the form of the disease is isolated and different symptoms of coronary heart disease:

  • asymptomatic form can be found exclusively in the survey because it has not developed;
  • angina is manifested by pain in the chest pressing nature, which give to the neck or left arm, the patient also complains of shortness of breath when walking;
  • arrhythmic form is characterized by shortness of breath, palpitations, and interruptions in the work of the heart muscle;
  • myocardial infarction is manifested by severe pain in the chest that resemble angina, but they are more intense.

course and prognosis

CHD is irreversible, which means that no tools that can completely cure it.And all the modern methods of treatment can allow to some extent slow down the progress of the disease and its control.

defeat of the heart muscle is inextricably linked to diseases of other organs: kidneys, brain, pancreas.This process is called "cardiovascular continuum", and includes diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, atrial fibrillation and others.

Treatment of coronary heart disease involves, first of all, qualitative improvement of the image of the patient's life, the maximum attenuation of the disease symptoms, severe course warning of CHD (myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, unstable angina pectoris).

Experts advise to adhere to the following guidelines:

  • stop smoking and excessive alcohol consumption;
  • go on a low-calorie diet that provides the optimal level of cholesterol;
  • enrich the diet with vitamins and minerals (magnesium and potassium);
  • introduce metered exercise or active walking;
  • avoid stress;
  • reduce excess weight.

To date, the treatment of coronary heart disease experts used drugs such as beta-blockers, nitroglycerin, aspirin, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, diuretics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and others.

In case of worsening of symptoms despite the medication, the patient may need surgery.

Methods surgery in ischemic heart disease include:

  • coronary artery bypass surgery (surgery in which blood flow to the myocardium improves due to the combination of coronary vessels);
  • balloon dilation of vessels (dilation lumen);
  • atherectomy (removal of platelets by a device similar to a drill);
  • brachytherapy (radiation effects on occlusion);
  • transmyocardial laser revascularization (with a laser catheter is a few punctures in the heart, which provide for the formation of new blood vessels).

Additional methods of treating coronary heart disease include:

  • hirudotherapy;
  • shock wave therapy;
  • Enhanced external counterpulsation;
  • quantum therapy;
  • stem cell treatment.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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