Infectious mononucleosis - Causes, Symptoms , Treatment


1. causative agent of infectious monokuleza

2. source of infection

3. Pathogenesis

4. Symptoms of infection monokuleza

5. Possible complications

6. treatment of infectious monokuleza

infectious monokulez refers to anthroponotic acute viral infectious diseases.The causative agent of the disease was first isolated by the British pathologist MAEpstein and J. Barr Canadian virologist from the cells of Burkitt's lymphoma in 1964, because of what is called Epstein-Barr virus.The disease is characterized by fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, tonsillitis, enlargement of the liver, the spleen, the peculiar changes in blood composition.In some cases, the disease can become chronic.

symptoms and course of disease were first described by NFFilatov in 1885 and E. Pfeiffer.Hemogram changes during disease have been studied over the years by many researchers, these characteristic changes was the reason that American scientists T. Sprent and F. Evans called infectious disease m


causative agent of infectious monokuleza

causative agent of the disease is the human B-lymphotropic virus, which belongs to the herpes virus.Virus DNA is genomic, capsid is 120-150 nm in diameter, which is surrounded by a shell of a lipid contained therein.

virus Epstein-Barr virus is able to replicate, including B-lymphocytes.It does not lead to cell death, but on the contrary, leads to activation of their proliferation.The virus is characterized by weak stability in the external environment, is easily destroyed during drying, exposure to extreme heat and disinfectants.

addition monokuleza infectious virus Epstein-Barr virus causes Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.The virus can persist for a long time in the host cell in a latent form.It has antigenic components with other similar viruses of herpes group.Strains isolated from patients with different clinical forms monokuleza, have no significant difference.

source of infection

The virus is transmitted by aerosol, by airborne droplets.Most often, infection occurs through saliva by kissing, sexually, through the hands, household items and toys.Furthermore, transmission is possible through blood transfusions and during childbirth.In any case, the source is a patient, including the erased disease manifestations.

known that about half of all adults carry the infection at the age of 14-16 years in girls and 16-18 years for boys.Cases of people older than 40 years are rare, but in patients with HIV infection, reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus can occur at any age.

Factors contributing to infection are living together patients and healthy people, overcrowding, the use of the common laundry, dishwashing and household contacts close, so the outbreak is often seen in hostels, boarding schools.The risk of infection is increased in children monokuleza when visiting kindergartens and camps.


With the penetration of the virus Epstein-Barr virus in the upper respiratory tract with saliva occurs epithelial damage and lymphoid tissue rotor and nasopharynx.This is accompanied by mucosal edema, enlarged tonsils and regional lymph nodes.Support productive infection of B-lymphocytes that have surface receptors for the virus.From their cytoplasm virus infection monokuleza of disseminated throughout the body.The virus Epstein-Barr virus selectively affects lymphoid and reticular tissue, which is manifested generalized lymphadenopathy, enlarged liver and spleen.

In the acute phase of the disease increases the number and activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.They recognize virus-induced membrane antigens and destroy infected cells.In this T-suppressor poliferatsiyu and inhibit differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells.

With infectious monokuleze develop strong immunity.Re-infection leads to an increase in antibody titer.But the virus remains in the body and persist in it throughout their lives, which leads to the possibility of chronic disease course with reactivation of infection with a decrease in the immune defense.

Symptoms of infection monokuleza

The incubation period of the disease lasts for about a week.Most often, the disease is characterized by acute onset.Symptoms of infection monokuleza in this case, is the rapid rise in body temperature, which is accompanied by headache, pain when swallowing, fever, body aches, and sweating.The duration of fever can vary from several days to 1 month.

Infectious monokulez children and other age groups of patients is accompanied by the development of a sore throat, lymphadenopathy, hepatolienal syndrome.Can nasal congestion with nasal breathing difficulty, nasal voice.In tonsils formed loose raids yellowish.The mucous membrane of the soft palate can be covered with hemorrhagic elements, the rear wall of the pharynx becomes sharply hyperemic, and loosened grain.Symptoms of infection include monokuleza also enlarged lymph nodes from the first days of the disease.

At the height of the disease in most patients, increased liver and spleen.Occurrence exanthema, which causes itching and requires no treatment.Sharp for 2-3 weeks followed by a period of convalescence.The temperature returned to normal, the patient's condition improves, it passes angina and Banti's syndrome.Gradually reduces the size of the lymph nodes.

duration of individual diseases.It may occur with the change of periods of exacerbations and remissions, which delays the total duration of a few months.

Possible complications

most common infection to join monokulezu bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, etc.Pediatric Infectious monokulez can lead to severe hepatitis.Also available thrombocytopenia, splenic rupture, cardiac complications.Most cases have a favorable prognosis.

treatment of infectious monokuleza

In mild and moderate forms of the disease can be cured at home.Depending on the severity of intoxication is determined by the need for bed rest.When manifestations of hepatitis B is recommended diet.

specific treatment of infectious monokuleza does not exist.Spend detoxification, restorative and palliative care.For the treatment of infectious monokuleza also used Oropharyngeal rinse with antiseptic solutions.When bacterial complications prescribe antibiotics.

To prevent the disease is necessary to increase general and immunological resistance.Methods of specific preventive maintenance is not developed.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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