Infectious arthritis - causes, symptoms , treatment


1. Causes

2. Symptoms of infectious arthritis

3. Diagnostics

4. Treatment of infectious arthritis

Septic, pyogenic,infectious arthritis - are three different names for the same disease, which is characterized by severe joint disease on the background of a bacterial or fungal infection.The disease affects people of any age but mainly occurs in children and people over 60 years.The current development of surgical techniques and medications did not change the picture substantially the prevalence of the disease, so today, like many years ago, every third patient develops an irreversible loss of joint function.


diseases As the name suggests the disease, the main cause of the disease - fungal, bacterial or viral infection.However, depending on the age, it enters the body through specific and under the influence of different risk factors.For example, infectious arthritis in infants often occurs in families where the mother during pregnancy had been ill with gonorrhe

a.If the child is in the hospital catheter, the risk of disease increases.Infectious arthritis in children aged up to two years mostly caused Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus.In children older joints are affected and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria of the genus streptococcus viridans and streptococcus pyogenes.

Teenagers illness strikes in connection with an active sex life.Most often, they found neisseria gonorrhoeae virus, better known as gonococcus, a microorganism that causes gonorrhea.

In old age, cause of infectious arthritis is most often are bacteria of the genus Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pathogens get into the joints through the bloodstream, but rarely - and during surgery or intra-articular injections.There are certain high-risk groups, which include patients with chronic rheumatoid arthritis, supports complex systemic infections, including HIV and gonorrhea, people who prefer homosexual preferences, cancer patients, people with drug and alcohol addiction, diabetics, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus orsickle cell anemia.In addition, at the first signs of infectious arthritis must pass by those who have recently had a surgical operation on joints, as well as patients who are registered intraarticular injection.

Symptoms of infectious arthritis

Since infancy, adolescence and old age, joints affect various species of pathogens, infectious arthritis symptoms also are diverse.

There are common features inherent in infectious arthritis - a pain in the affected joint, which is only amplified when driving.With the development of the disease, the affected joint swells, its outline changes.The patient has a fever, red skin.Over time, the patient's limb is deformed accordingly specificity of the disease.

Infectious arthritis in children often results in an increase in body temperature, joint pain and anxiety.A child can not always explain what was bothering him, but instinctively restricts the movement of the affected limb, as touching the joint is painful.In infants, symptoms of infectious arthritis develops gradually, can not be said about teenagers and adults - they are characterized by sudden onset of the disease.The main symptoms in older age - sudden joint redness, heat and pain in the affected area due to the inflammatory process.The diseased joint fluid accumulates because of which the swelling is formed, and the mobility of a joint decreases.Chance chills.

The characteristic symptoms of infectious arthritis include localization of lesions - most often the knee, shoulder, wrist, hip, elbow joint.Often affects the finger joints.If the disease is caused by agents of tuberculosis or fungal infection, infectious arthritis symptoms are less pronounced.These microorganisms are primarily affect one joint, at least two or three.Symptom of infection gonococcal arthritis and viral nature - the defeat of multiple joints simultaneously.


lack of timely treatment infectious arthritis can lead to the fact that the affected joint is destroyed within a few days.Therefore, when the first symptoms of infectious arthritis is conducted immediate diagnostic study.

Diagnostics includes fence joint fluid analysis on leukocytes and the presence of painful microflora.Liquid taken from the affected joint, usually cloudy and contains purulent flakes, as well as a high percentage of leukocytes.With Gram stain revealed gram-positive bacteria and gram-seeding allows to specify the type of pathogen.If no coloring, no seeding is not allowed to identify the pathogen, carried out a biopsy of synovial tissue near the joint.In addition to the puncture site can be assigned to a blood test, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine.

Diagnostics should also differentiate between infectious arthritis from other possible diseases with similar symptoms - Lyme disease, rheumatic fever, gout, etc.In some situations, the diagnosis helps to determine the nature of pain and the location of the affected areas.

infectious arthritis Treatment

disease requires urgent medical and long-term physical therapy.Since the disease in a short time can cause irreversible damage to the joints at the first suspicion of infectious arthritis before the final diagnosis appointed antibiotics.infectious arthritis treatment can later be adjusted after determining the particular pathogen.For example, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory prescribed for viral infection.Further treatment of infectious arthritis includes two weeks antibiotics, which can be extended depending on the signs of inflammation.Doctor antibiotic therapy may extend for two or four weeks.

In case the infection is immune to antibiotics or difficult to reach the affected joint puncture, appointed by operation of the joint drainage.This method of treatment of infectious arthritis is used for penetrating gunshot wounds.In especially severe cartilage damage and bone surgery for joint reconstruction can be assigned, but not before taking steps to treat the infection.

Treatment of infectious arthritis usually requires receiving painkillers.At the inflamed sites may be imposed compress and to prevent accidental movements affected joint is fixed by a bus.During rehabilitation treatment of infectious arthritis patient is prescribed exercises that gradually increase the amplitude of joint mobility.Therapeutic exercise should not lead to pain.

With timely treatment of infectious arthritis goes without destroying the tissues of the joints.However, in 30% of cases yet may develop osteoarthritis or joint deformity.Infectious arthritis in children, striking the hip joints can lead to complications such as the destruction of the growth zone.In rare cases, the disease can lead to respiratory failure and septic shock.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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