Myocardial infarction - symptoms, treatment , first aid


1. Symptoms of myocardial infarction

2. First aid for heart attack

3. Treatment

4. Consequences

Myocardial infarction -it is a condition characterized by loss of area of ​​the heart muscle as a result of acute circulatory disorders in the region of the heart.The most susceptible to the disease in men aged 40 to 60 years.Women suffering from this disease is almost two times less.

disease can occur on the background of coronary artery disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis.smoking can be distinguished among the main risk factors for the disease, which contributes to narrowing of the coronary vessels of the heart muscle and reduce the supply of blood;physical inactivity;obesity.Additionally, this condition may be the first step in the development of coronary heart disease.According to statistics, the disease is by far one of the main causes of disability in adulthood.Mortality in this case is about 10 - 12%.

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the most severe compli

cations of heart disease.Among the main risk factors for acute myocardial infarction can be identified in the past transferred myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases (mainly coronary heart disease), smoking, alcohol abuse.In addition, people over the age of forty years are more prone to acute myocardial infarction.

Obesity, diabetes, high blood levels of triglycerides and high blood pressure can also cause the development of acute myocardial infarction.People who are at risk, it is recommended with special attention to their mental and emotional state, as the constant anxiety, emotional tension and stress can trigger the development of acute myocardial infarction.

Symptoms of myocardial infarction

Among the main symptoms of myocardial infarction can be identified nagging pain after taking nitroglycerin, cold sweats, pale skin, and fainting.The main symptom of myocardial infarction is a long-compressively intense pressing pain in the chest in the heart area.The pain may be given in the neck, arm, back and the shoulder blades.

should be noted that not all cases, the disease is accompanied by typical symptoms of myocardial infarction.The patient may be concerned about discomfort in the chest, as well as failure of the heart.Furthermore, in some cases of myocardial infarction symptoms completely absent.When an atypical form of the disease may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, shortness of breath and pain in the abdomen.Such a variety of symptoms often complicates the diagnosis.

First aid for heart attack

First aid in myocardial infarction is mainly to facilitate breathing patient, which should undo or remove constraining clothes.It should be noted that the man was next to the patient at the time of the onset of a heart attack, you need to concentrate and not to panic.It is necessary as quickly as possible to call the ambulance.

First aid for a heart attack is based on the provision of rest for the patient before coming team.The patient must be placed so that the upper part of the trunk was a little higher than the bottom, which will reduce the load on the heart.You can use sedatives.In the course of first aid should provide fresh air to prevent asthma attacks.

Before the ambulance brigade arrival it is necessary every 5 - 7 minutes to monitor your heart rate and blood pressure.With normal blood pressure can be offered to the patient to take nitroglycerin, but repeated its reception can be no more than two times.It should be noted that at low blood pressure, is contraindicated nitroglycerin.

During the first aid to the patient should be asked to chew one tablet of aspirin.The fact that aspirin promotes blood dilution, thereby improving metabolic processes in the ischemic portion of the heart muscle.

Treatment of myocardial infarction Treatment takes place in a hospital intensive care unit.Therefore, at the first sign of heart attack should immediately call an ambulance.

Treatment of myocardial infarction based on the specific therapy comprising administration of drugs that promote the dissolution of the thrombus formed.Furthermore, myocardial infarction treatment also includes the use of agents that reduce blood pressure, reduce heart rate, reduce blood volume.It is important that the patient be hospitalized as soon as possible, since the effectiveness of the treatment depends on the time elapsed since the first signs of the disease before entering the hospital.

rehabilitation period is very important.Its duration is typically six months.Necessary treatment of myocardial infarction in this case shall designate an appropriate doctor.It should be noted that some of the drugs need to be taken before the end of life.It is also recommended to follow a certain diet, quit smoking and alcohol.


There is a risk of complications and long-term nature of the approximate after myocardial infarction.Prevention is very important in this case as to reduce the risk of complications.Unfortunately, some of the complications is almost impossible to avoid.The fact that in some cases the destruction process covers a large enough portion of the myocardium, thereby limiting appear functional activity of the heart.This fact can affect the entire circulatory system.In some cases, after myocardial infarction developing coronary heart disease.

There are two main categories of complications, coming after a myocardial infarction.

Acute effects occur due to the withering away of the infarction, and appear in the form of arrhythmia, thrombosis, embolism, acute circulatory failure by left ventricular type.

Remote (delayed) effects occur as a result of the development of chronic heart failure, which occurs due to scarring of the heart muscle area.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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