2. diagnosis of interstitial nephritis
3. Symptoms of interstitial nephritis
4. Treatment of interstitial nephritis acute and chronic type
Among the pathological processes occurring in the kidney, a special place is occupied by interstitial nephritis.This is an inflammatory, usually, immunological disease that is localized in the interstitial (interstitial) tissue and tubular kidney nephrons unit.This form of disease is completely independent, nosological disease.
Symptoms of interstitial nephritis remind pyelonephritis, which also affects the kidney tubules and mediate tissue, but in this disease the inflammatory process is not accompanied by destructive changes in kidney tissues and does not extend to the pelvis and cups.Today, chronic and acute interstitial nephritis is still not well studied disease, little known to medical practitioners.
Because the clinical picture of the disease is dominated expressed abnormalities in the renal tubules, the disease a
are two forms of interstitial nephritis - acute and chronic.
Acute interstitial nephritis is characterized by inflammatory changes in the interstitial kidney tissue and can lead to severe complications such as acute renal failure.Acute interstitial nephritis can occur in people of all ages, from newborn babies to the elderly, but most of the cases recorded in the age range 20-50 years.
Chronic interstitial nephritis leads to the development of interstitial tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy and glomerular lesions in the later stages of the disease.The outcome of the disease, as a rule, is the development of renal scarring.
interstitial nephritis Treatment depends on the patient's condition and clinical manifestations.
reasons that provoke interstitial nephritis, can be very diverse.But more often, the disease is associated with prolonged use of certain medications, particularly antibiotics, sulfonamides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, immunosuppressants, and others.
is not fully understood the mechanism of this disease.The most reasonable is the theory of the genesis of immune diseases.Thus the basic precipitating factor is still negative impact etiological factors (toxins, antibiotics, etc.) On protein structures and membranes of the renal tubules interstitial tissue, to form complexes, which have antigenic properties.That is, in common parlance, the beginning of the disease can be described as below process sequence.
etiological factor with blood enters the kidneys and passes through the glomerular filter, enters the tubular lumen.Here, a foreign substance is reabsorbed, and passed through the tubular wall, destroying the protein structure of the basement membrane, forming complete antigens.The ongoing immune reaction between antigens and antibodies, leads to the formation of immune complexes which are deposited in the interstitium and tubular basement membranes, which causes inflammation.
Also toxic and drugs, the disease can be associated with obstruction of the urinary tract, vesicoureteral reflux, prolonged exposure to heavy metals, the etiology of diseases of the immune, granulomatous diseases, malignancies.If you determine the cause of interstitial nephritis is not possible to use the term "idiopathic interstitial nephritis."
Because the disease is often erased, not symptomatic, the installation of the correct diagnosis has certain difficulties.The most reliable clinical manifestation for diagnosis is the combination of certain disease symptoms - phenomena giperazotermii against the background of acute renal failure, which occur in the first days after the appointment of a particular group of drugs that occurs early in the disease polyuria, and early development gipostenurii.
in the diagnosis of disease using a number of laboratory and instrumental methods - blood and urine tests, histological analysis of kidney tissue puncture, X-ray and ultrasound of the kidneys.
The severity and nature of the clinical manifestations of interstitial nephritis depends on the degree of activity of pathological processes in the kidneys and total intoxication.Primary symptoms of interstitial nephritis appear in the first days of receiving the drugs.Most patients complain of headache, general weakness, drowsiness, nausea, loss or loss of appetite.Often the symptoms of interstitial nephritis may be accompanied by fever and chills, muscle aches, allergic rashes on the skin.Found in the urine red blood cells and protein.
Acute interstitial nephritis viral etiology has symptomatic renal syndrome on the background of hemorrhagic fever.The clinical picture of acute viral interstitial nephritis is almost identical to the symptoms of acute pyelonephritis.
chronic interstitial nephritis in the early development of the disease has a very scarce symptoms.With the development of kidney disease process, there are a variety of symptoms of intoxication - back pain and abdominal pain, fatigue, weakness, pale skin, characterized by polyuria.Laboratory studies of urine detected a moderate proteinuria, and antibacterial leykotsitouriyu microhematuria.
dismetabolic chronic interstitial nephritis is characterized by crystalluria.Further symptoms such as anemia and mild labile hypertension.Tubular renal function is significantly decreased, urine density is reduced.Further progress of the disease further reducing kidney function and leading to the development of renal failure.Later stages of the disease are characterized by structural and functional changes in the glomeruli and development of glomerulosclerosis.Scars interstitial tissue and evolving fibrosis, lead to kidney shrinkage, and is very difficult to distinguish from chronic interstitial nephrosis any other nephropathy.
For the treatment of interstitial nephritis patients are hospitalized in the nephrology department.Treatment of interstitial nephritis in the first place is to find out the causes of the disease.Very often, a special treatment is required.Of great importance is the abolition of the substance that triggered the disease.The rest is assigned to symptomatic treatment and a special diet with restriction of foods high in animal protein.In acute and chronic interstitial nephritis excluded from use products that irritate the kidney tubular device - spices, meats, marinades, herbs with a sharp taste.To improve renal microcirculation appointed by such drugs as the chimes, Trental, Teonikol.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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