Human Immunodeficiency - types , symptoms, treatment


1. Primary immunodeficiency

2. secondary immunodeficiencies

3. Severe combined immunodeficiency

4. External examination of patients with immunodeficiencies

5. treatment of immunodeficiencies

Immunologic failure (immunodeficiency) - is a group of various pathological conditions in which the immune system is not working properly, which is why the disease caused by the infectious process, more severe, repeated more frequently, and, last longer,than usual.

Immunological failure is the primary (since birth), secondary (occurs during lifetime) and combined (a group of inherited diseases, which is characterized by serious violations of immune functioning).

Primary immunodeficiency

Primary immunodeficiency is a severe hereditary genetic disorder (change in a single gene).This kind of immunodeficiency in humans begins to appear almost at birth or in early childhood.This immune failure distinguished names in accordance with the damaged component (B cells, T cells, accessor

y cells, phagocytic cells) or in accordance with the clinical syndrome.Primary immunodeficiencies detected in 80% to 20 years.

Infectious processes that accompany primary immunodeficiency, have a number of distinctive features:

  • politopnye (multiple lesions of various tissues and organs).
  • recurrent or chronic illness, a tendency to progression.
  • polyetiology (simultaneous susceptibility to many pathogens).
  • Incomplete treatment effect or partial purification of a patient's body from pathogens.

clinical picture of primary immunodeficiencies (PID)

PID has a characteristic set of symptoms, which make it possible to recognize some form of primary immune deficiency type.

predominant T cell PID is characterized by a delay in physical development, early-onset, persistent diarrhea, skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, bone abnormalities, malignancies, opportunistic infections, and oral candidiasis.

predominant B-cell PID characterized by the following symptoms: musculoskeletal lesions (fasciitis, arthritis and so on.), Recurrent respiratory infectious diseases, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system diseases, and many other features.

Defects of phagocytosis: urinary tract infection, bone loss, skin lesions, later falling of the umbilical cord, diseases of the digestive system, oral lesions, respiratory system diseases, swollen lymph nodes and an early start.

complement Defects: rheumatic disorders, deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor, increased susceptibility to infectious processes, the first symptoms of the disease can occur at any age.

secondary immunodeficiencies

VIEW complications are many conditions and diseases.Ill secondary immunodeficiency person can for the following reasons:

  • total exhaustion and poor diet.
  • Chronic viral and bacterial infectious processes, as well as parasitic infestations can also be instigators of secondary immunodeficiencies.
  • Helminthiases.
  • diarrheal syndrome.
  • Severe blood loss (kidney diseases, burns and so on.), Which leads to loss of immune protection factors and secondary immunodeficiencies.
  • Stress Syndrome.
  • Low weight at birth.
  • Chronic and acute poisoning xenobiotics.
  • endocrinopathies.
  • operations and serious injuries.
  • Malignancies.
  • Autoimmune diseases.
  • Low immunity in pregnant women and the elderly.

Manifestations of secondary immunodeficiencies

Man with immunodeficiency secondary type of suffering, mainly following syndromes and diseases: persistent, severe, recurrent bacterial infection;infectious diseases of the skin and mucous membranes;recurrent respiratory infections;neurological problems (autoimmune conditions, encephalitis, seizures);increased incidence of stomach cancer and liver diseases;haematological disorders (anemia, leukopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia);disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (even diarrhea);easy development and progression of complications (eg, common acute bronchitis in the shortest possible time can develop into pneumonia, bronchiectasis and respiratory failure).

Severe combined immunodeficiency

Severe combined immunodeficiency is a very rare disease which can be cured only if the disease was detected in a timely manner.Ignoring the treatment of children die during the first year of life.Combined immunodeficiency is a whole group of hereditary diseases characterized by severe impairment of the immune system.Such disturbances include changing the function or reduce the number of T- and B-lymphocytes, which are "generated" in the bone marrow and defend the body from various human infections.

combined immunodeficiency (KID) in the pathological process involves two types of lymphocytes, whereas other forms of immune deficiency affects only one cell type.

main symptoms combined immunodeficiency are: delayed physical development, a high level of susceptibility to infections (fungal, viral, bacterial) and chronic diarrhea.

External examination of patients with immunodeficiencies

Man with immunodeficiency, as a rule, has a painful appearance.Such people are different general malaise, skin pallor, cachexia, or swollen stomach retracted.Very often patients suffer from skin diseases: pyoderma, vesicular rash, eczema, and telangiectasia.Also, there may be symptoms of chronic diseases of upper respiratory tract (nasopharyngeal leaking, thickened or swollen nostrils, the scars of the tympanic membrane).There is a characteristic cough, accompanied by the sound of crepitation.Another characteristic of the infected and inflamed eyes.

treatment of immunodeficiencies

The general principles of treatment of immunodeficiencies include healthy lifestyle, as well as protection from all kinds of infections.In addition, the required regular visits to dental offices.

People with a lack of antibodies at the time of the treatment of immunodeficiency requires vaccination dead vaccines.With regard to the fungal and bacterial infections, they should be removed at the earliest stages.There are situations when the patient in the treatment of immunodeficiency appointed by continuous prophylactic antibiotics.Infectious processes of the chest require light physical exercises and physiotherapy.

first line treatment of immunodeficiencies in most cases becomes a replacement therapy by subcutaneous or intravenous administration of immunoglobulin.

If we talk about the elimination of T-cell deficiency, then the best method of treatment is considered to be a bone marrow transplant (if a suitable donor).


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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