1. Causes Stuttering
2. Types stuttering
4. Age features
5. How to get rid of stuttering
Have you ever heard, like children or adults stretched sounds, syllables and words, or make an unexpected stop in speech, tearing her rhythmic for?In classical speech therapy this defect is called stuttering and associate it with glossophobia or verbofobiey, fear speech.How to get rid of stuttering?Speech therapists believe that it arose simultaneously with the speech - they suffered the prophet Moses, orator Demosthenes, and many other famous people.Today, there are a number of effective practices aimed at the treatment of stuttering.
two groups of factors stand out in contemporary speech therapy, influencing the development of stuttering in children - predisposing and precipitating.Some of them contribute to the development of stuttering, others cause it.
Predisposing conditions include parents neuropathy (nerve, infectious and somatic diseases
defect may be caused by brain damage in utero or at birth, asphyxia, childhood diseases, and so on.Adverse conditions are physically impaired children age characteristics of brain activity, accelerated speech development, latent psychic was disadvantaged children, deficiency of positive emotions and emotional contact with adults, as well as lack of motor skills, sense of rhythm or mimic and articulatory movements.To correct the stuttering is important to address these vulnerabilities.
There adverse causes that provoke stuttering.These include physical and psychological injury, organic brain damage, depletion or exhaustion of the nervous system, long-acting mental injury, malformation of speech, speech material overload, do not correspond to the child's age, stuttering imitation, and sometimes - retraining left-handedness.
There are many theories about the causes of stuttering in children and adults.The US National Stuttering Association connects them with fear, guilt, anxiety, withdrawal from the real world.
Most often stuttering occurs in boys aged 4-5 years, and against a background of normal child development.At the same time, 90% of children speech impediment extends to adolescence, provided the treatment and elimination of stressful situations.
stuttering Stuttering in children and adults can take two forms - clonic and tonic.In the first case one can observe the pause in speech or stretching of a sound.In the second - the frequent repetition of a sound, syllable or word.There are mixed forms, in which tonic clonic convulsions combined with.
According to another classification of stuttering is divided into neurotic and neurosis.Neurosis stuttering in children develop on the background of dysmotility and articulation.The children with this form of stuttering start to speak later and developed a little slower peers, and the EEG shows a borderline or abnormal functioning of the brain.
neurotic stuttering in children may develop on the background of early or normal motor and speech development.The defect of speech appears on the background of chronic stress or fright, although the brain functioning, however, remains harmonious.In a tranquil setting, such children, and later, perhaps, adults speak normally and only in the moment of stress experienced strong voice cramps.For example, when will public speaking, conversation with a stranger or ask an unexpected question.
speech stammering man easily distinguished from normal.Clonic stuttering in adults and children - is a characteristic of the repetition of certain sounds, syllables, or even whole phrases, for example, the "n-n-n-n-necessary", "ma-ma-ma-machine", etc.Tonic stuttering in children and adults is characterized by pauses in speech, and sometimes in the middle of a word, such as "t ... Akim way" or "Cat ... Amaral".Almost always, stuttering in adults and children accompanied by tension and fear of speech.
person always aware of his speech defect correction of stuttering can make unnatural movements, grimaces or tics experience.Typically, speech defects accompany social phobia and other fears.In rare cases, in the absence of stuttering correction possible the phenomenon of hikikomori, in which a teenager tends to an extreme degree of isolation, refusing to leave the parental home, and can be held in a separate room a few months.
Stuttering manifests itself in early childhood and in the absence of timely assistance may persist up to adulthood, thus greatly affecting the identity of stuttering.
Stuttering in adults is associated with a strong psychological discomfort, speech difficulties and setbacks, emotional experiences.Ultimately, it leads to serious mental injury, which provoke care in their own world.
Stuttering in adults - is not just a speech defect, is a disorder of the nervous system and physical health, which can take many forms.For example, muscle tension, stiffness, or, conversely, restlessness, flushing, irritability and feelings, which in turn further reinforce and strengthen the stuttering.
There are many methods of treatment of stuttering, which can be broadly divided into speech therapy, psychological, psychotherapeutic, logopsihoterapevticheskie, sotsioreabilitatsionnye, medication, physical therapy, complex and even unconventional.None of these methods does not guarantee a cure.Sometimes, in order to answer for themselves the question how to get rid of stuttering, you need to try a combination of several techniques, to conduct joint exercises with the pediatrician, a speech therapist and a psychologist.
pediatrician Help in the treatment of stuttering is needed in order to eliminate the associated diseases, strengthen the body, to eliminate chronic diseases.Psychologist and psychotherapist help in the correction of stuttering - the owner of this bad speech impediment learn to feel comfortable in any situation and not be afraid to communicate with people.
role of speech therapy in the treatment of stuttering can not be overestimated, because the specialist will help teach children and even adults presenting a measured speech, give her emotional and without experiencing discomfort.The classes in speech therapy are simulated life situations that can cause stuttering in a child or adult, and it helps patients understand how to get rid of stuttering in the real world.
of the traditional methods of treatment of stuttering is to provide breathing exercises, for example, "breathing exercises Strelnikova", which includes a set of exercises for deep breathing and exercise of the diaphragm.These exercises help make breathing freer, thanks to this and the voice becomes natural.Traditional stuttering treatments include and relaxation, but it is used in combination with other methods.
Sometimes to correct stuttering resort to methods of alternative medicine, namely acupressure.This treatment requires a long course of stuttering, which gradually restores the nervous regulation of speech.In rare cases, stuttering correction applied hypnosis.
as medical treatment of stuttering used anticonvulsants and tranquilizers.Although because of side effects, many scientists are opposed to the use of drugs.As a substitute for soft tranquilizers used decoctions Leonurus and other herbal sedatives.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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