1. reasons for female infertility
2. diagnosis of infertility in women
3. female infertility treatment
Under female infertility refers to the inability of a woman to become pregnant withinyear of regular sexual intercourse under the condition that her partner is able to conceive.Some experts argue that this period may be two years.According to statistics, the number of cases of female and male infertility is approximately the same among married couples, therefore always requires both partners test for accurate diagnosis of female infertility.
obstruction of uterine (fallopian) tubes is the most common cause of female infertility.Upon successful ovulation, the egg meets the sperm in the fallopian tubes, where fertilization takes place and the embryo is created.Further, the embryo has to get through the tube into the uterus, but if the lumen of the fallopian tubes is narrowed or completely closed, it is impossible.
Causes of tubal infertilit
In second place among the causes of female infertility are endocrine (hormonal disorders), which may be a consequence of a violation of ovarian function, endocrine organs (thyroid gland, hypothalamus, adrenal, pituitary) and other organs (kidney, liver).Endocrine disorders in women always lead to failure mechanisms of ovulation and may be caused by not only the disorders of the body's systems, but also by other factors (eg, long-term stress).
Third frequently observed cause of female infertility is the endometriosis disease in which the endometrium grows outside, forming adhesions that prevent the egg and sperm fusion.
The causes of female infertility also include the following disorders, and diseases:
- pathology of the uterus - congenital (uterine doubling, intrauterine septum) or acquired (endometritis, polyps, cervical erosion, uterine fibroids, adenomyosis);
- or polycystic ovarian failure;
- immunological incompatibility, in which a woman has developed antibodies to sperm;
- chromosomal abnormality;
- disturbances in the body's systems that have a chronic course (nervous system, circulatory system, cancer).
addition separately allocate psychological infertility, in which a woman consciously or unconsciously does not want the pregnancy.This may be a temporary phenomenon, manifested in the reluctance to have children from a particular partner, or a consequence of a strong fear of childbirth, changes in appearance, which would entail the pregnancy, etc.
strong negative impact on female reproductive function may have a heavy physical activity, intake of certain medications, unhealthy lifestyle, harmful occupational factors such as constant contact with toxic substances and pesticides.
Generally, medications that suppress ovulation, leading to a temporary female infertility.Work during ovarian receiving means such as, for example, Norkolut, Zoladex, Danazol and drugs used in chemotherapy, is completely broken.However, after treatment, reproductive function, usually gradually restored.
for diagnosis of female infertility using such techniques as gynecological exam, blood tests, including hormonal, ultrasound examination of the uterus and ovaries.Often, experts also used hysterography (the uterine cavity is introduced contrast agent, which allows to see on the X-ray image of a clear uterus and fallopian tubes) and hysteroscopy (examination of the inner surface of the uterus using a special optical device hysteroscope).
To analyze the state of the uterus using ultrasound, hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy mother.The study of tubal patency is performed by laparoscopy and hysterography.Evaluation work requires ovarian hormonal studies on phases of the menstrual cycle, regular tests for ovulation, and often ultrasound monitoring of ovulation.
To exclude immunological incompatibility is usually used postcoital test, which allows to evaluate sperm survival after intercourse (the number and mobility).In the process of female infertility diagnosis of both partners is also necessary to check for the presence of infectious diseases, sexually transmitted diseases.
About 5-7% of all infertile couples are diagnosed with "idiopathic infertility", by which is meant infertility of unknown origin.In such cases the experts after a thorough investigation of both partners can not identify the causes of infertility in any of them.
Experts note that about half of women diagnosis indicates the presence of one factor reproductive disorders.The remaining 50% of the combine between two and five factors identified in the diagnosis of female infertility.
female infertility treatment always requires an individual approach to patients, in which should be taken into account age, overall health, length of the period during which the partners are trying to get pregnant, their way of life, etc.The first treatment should begin with removing the primary factor infertility.For example, the detection of obstruction of the fallopian tubes in conjunction with the violation of ovulation, first held patency restoration, and then assigned to treatment to stimulate ovulation.
female infertility treatment can be directed either to restore the ability to conceive naturally, or on the use of assisted reproductive technologies (IVF, ICSI, intrauterine insemination).
conservative medical therapy can be used to restore fertility, including hormonal or anti-inflammatory treatment.In the case of obstruction of the fallopian tubes are also often used surgical methods for the treatment of female infertility:
- salpingostomy - restoration of patency in the vials of the fallopian tube;
- salpingolizis - eliminating adhesions overtighten the fallopian tubes;
- transplanting the ovary to the uterus - is carried out in the absence of the fallopian tubes;
- implantation of the fallopian tube into the uterus - a healthy portion of the fallopian tube is transplanted into the uterine horn with the obstruction of the fallopian tubes or the isthmus;
- omentoovariopeksiya - auxiliary postoperative intervention, in which the ovaries are created conditions for increase circulation.
most common methods of assisted reproductive technology represented by the following procedures:
- IVF (in vitro fertilization, after which the embryos are transplanted into a woman's uterus);
- intracellular sperm injection (ICSI);
- zefta (tubal embryo implantation, in which the embryo is transplanted into the uterus does not, as in the fallopian tubes);
- GIFT (gamete transfer, which involves the fusion of sperm and egg in the fallopian tubes).
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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