Gallstone disease - symptoms, treatment , food


1. Causes

2. Classification cholelithiasis

3. clinical picture

4. Diagnostics

5. Treatment of gallstone disease

6. Power in cholelithiasis

7. Preventive measures

gallstone disease - a disease of the biliary system, in which calculi (stones) formation in the bile ducts and gall bladder.At the present time, this disease suffers every ten people over the age of forty years.Women, compared to men who suffer from this disease are twice as likely.


The formation of stones, usually is dominated by two factors: a high level of salt concentration in the bile (with metabolic disorders) and stagnation of bile in the gallbladder.The main instigators gallstones (cholelithiasis) are:

  • Sedentary lifestyle (sedentary work).
  • Fasting, overeating and irregular meals.
  • Obesity.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Hormonal contraceptives.
  • Diseases of the pancreas.
  • biliary dyskinesia.

Classification cholelithiasis

Today doctors are three stages of the disease:

  • first stage - the physico-chemical.Symptoms of gallstones in this stage, no.The gall bladder stones can be found.
  • second stage - asymptomatic kamnenositelstvo.Gallstones are, but patients do not make any complaints.
  • third stage - the development of complications.Typically, at this stage there is an attack of gallstones.

clinical picture

While the stones are in the gallbladder, the patient can not even guess about the illness, as there are no symptoms of gallstones, he does not feel.To suspect the disease a person can only during the first warning signs: a bitter taste in the mouth, discomfort in the right upper quadrant, heartburn, belching and nausea.

If the stone comes from the gallbladder into the bile ducts, then at this moment there is an attack of gallstones (biliary colic).The patient in the upper abdomen or right upper quadrant there is a sharp pain, which can "give" in the back, right-hand or right collarbone.In addition to spontaneous pain, gallstones attack is accompanied by nausea, bitter taste in the mouth and vomiting, not bringing relief.

There are times when a stone (small size) passes the channels and drops into the duodenum.In such situations, the attack of gallstone disease is stopped on their own, and rock out with the feces.If it does not, there is a blockage of the bile ducts, as well, there is a risk of obstructive jaundice and acute cholecystitis.

Diagnostics Diagnostics CL engaged gastroenterologist.The diagnosis is established by using the patient's complaints and some additional research.

To begin patient do ultrasound of the abdomen.If the situation is more serious, doctors resort to cholecystocholangiography (X-ray examination with the introduction of contrast medium).

Treatment of gallstone disease

Treat the disease and can be therapeutic, and surgical methods.Usually, the treatment of gallstone disease begin using therapeutic techniques.These include:

  • dissolution of stones using special preparations (chenodeoxycholic and ursodeoxycholic acid).This method is effective only in the case of small single cholesterol stones.If the patient has no contraindications, the treatment with these drugs take about 1.5 years.
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - a rapid destruction of the stones of the shock wave that is created with the help of special devices.Treatment of gallstone disease by this method is shown only in the case of cholesterol stones (up to 3 cm).The procedure is almost painless and very well tolerated by patients.Pieces of stones coming out with their own body along with the feces.
  • Diet for gallstones - it is one of the most important aspects of treatment.Eating should be a one-off 4-6 to the total exclusion of fried, fatty, spicy, soft drinks and chocolate.In addition, strictly prohibited the use of fatty meat (pork, lamb), smoked food, alcohol and irritating condiments.Healthy eating in cholelithiasis includes dairy products and plant food.Very useful in food to add wheat bran.

Surgical treatment of gallstone disease at the present time is very popular.It is to remove the gallbladder.It can be done in 2 ways - laparoscopic cholecystectomy and classical cholecystectomy.Depending on the presence of comorbidities, as well as the severity of the patient, the surgeon selects the type of operation.

Power in cholelithiasis

The formation of stones in the gall bladder and ducts, one of the main roles played by salt and cholesterol.Therefore, in the diet in cholelithiasis major nuance it is the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.That is, patients should give up the foods that are rich in cholesterol - liver, egg yolks, fatty fish and meat, lard, beef fat, and so on.

cholesterol excretion from the body contribute to magnesium salts.Therefore, when the power of gallstone disease should include the ingredients, enriched with magnesium salts (apricots, oats and buckwheat).

In addition, the daily diet should be present a huge amount of vegetables, and baked, boiled and steam food.Doctors who prescribe diets with gallstone disease, recommend that patients eat stale gray or white bread;vegetarian, dairy and fruit soups;cereals and pasta;vegetables and herbs in any form;olive, sunflower and butter (in moderation) oil;honey, cheese, milk and curd.

Preventive measures

If the patient has no symptoms of gallstone disease and calculi (stones) behave calmly enough, then use a surgical method of treatment is not advisable.So people just need to carry out preventive measures, preventing the aggravation of the disease.

Prevention of the disease includes: moderate balanced meals, normalization of weight, non-fasting and irregular food intake, adequate drinking regime and moderate exercise.People with GSD preferably every day to engage in walking, as it significantly improves the functioning of the gall bladder, which prevents the stagnation of bile and formation of new stones.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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