5 May

Yellow fever - symptoms, treatment , vaccine

Contents:

1. General characteristics of the disease

2. Symptoms of yellow fever

3. Treatment of yellow fever

4. immunization

Yellow fever(synonym amarillosis) - extremely dangerous natural focal viral disease characterized by severe symptoms and often leads to death.

General characteristics of the disease

causative agent of yellow fever - a virus from the group of arboviruses (infections that transmit arthropods) genus Flavivirus.Carriers of agent - the mosquitoes.Sources of infection - monkey (most often), the rodents and hedgehogs (rare) - the so-called jungle yellow fever;infected person - when yellow fever settlements.

infected mosquito bites a human, it transmits the virus, which first gets into the lymph and lymphatic spread throughout the body and penetrate into the blood within a few days.Since the virus spreads through the blood to vital organs (liver, kidney, bone marrow, lymph nodes), which multiplies, accumulates, causing severe damage to these organs.

If the patient survived after a previous infection, then it produces lifelong immunity to yellow fever.

Mosquitoes can infect humans only if the high air temperature, if the temperature is below 180 ° C, they lose their ability to transmit the virus.This partly explains the fact that the yellow fever outbreaks occur most often in Africa, South and Central America.

Symptoms of yellow fever

Symptoms of the disease in most cases, very difficult.There are three periods of flow of yellow fever:

  • initial febrile period;
  • remission;
  • period venous stasis.

incubation period, which usually lasts 3-6 days (sometimes - 10), ends with a sharp start of the first febrile period.Symptoms of yellow fever in the initial period of the possible order of appearance:

  • sharply increased body temperature (up to 39-41oS);
  • temperature provokes chills, muscle pains, severe headache;
  • patient thirst, nausea and vomiting;
  • vomit slime, and some time later in the bile;
  • as a result of the overflow of blood vessels red facial skin, neck and torso;
  • blush sclera vessels, there is tearing, photophobia;
  • eyelids and face swell;
  • quickens the pulse (up to 130 beats per minute);
  • mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue become bright red color;
  • increased liver and spleen;
  • as a result of liver disease the skin becomes jaundiced, yellow sclera;
  • bleeding gums, nosebleeds occur;
  • blood present in vomit;
  • decreases blood pressure.

In most cases, this condition lasts for 4-5 days, but in severe cases, the disease can keep fever 8-10 days.Then the sick or dying, or entering a new period of remission.

Symptoms of yellow fever in remission:

  • body temperature drops, and is within the normal range;
  • stops vomiting;
  • person becomes discolored swelling disappears;
  • patient's general condition improves.

remission lasts only a few hours after it usually begins a very difficult period for the patient - the period of venous stasis, which manifests itself:

  • jaundice;
  • internal bleeding (uterine, stomach, intestine);
  • worsening of nasal bleeding and bleeding from the gums;
  • the emergence of large and small hemorrhages in the skin;
  • resumption of vomiting;
  • rise in temperature;
  • rare pulse;
  • low blood pressure;
  • muted tones of the heart;
  • severe renal, liver, heart, nervous system.

this critical period occurs 6-7 days after the onset of the first symptoms of yellow fever.In this period, as a rule, it decides whether the patient will die from renal, cardiac, hepatic or other failure or cope with the disease.In the case of a favorable course of yellow fever risk of death recedes into 7-8 days.

Treatment of yellow fever

There is no specific treatment for yellow fever.All that can help the doctor - symptomatic treatment of the disease, that is, the implementation of medical activities to facilitate the course of the disease.

Symptomatic treatment of yellow fever includes:

  • strict bed rest;
  • diet with the predominant use of dairy products and vegetable fat;
  • vitamins: ascorbic acid, vitamin B1, thiamin), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin K (Vikasol drug);
  • heparin intravenous infusion or as a - in order to restore the normal function of blood clotting;
  • use of glucocorticoids (prednisone, hydrocortisone) - to suspend vomiting, implementation of anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-exudative, antishock, anti-toxic effects on the body of the patient;
  • use of local anesthetics and internal, antipsychotics and antihistamines;
  • hemodialysis - in case of acute renal failure;
  • antibiotics - in the case of secondary bacterial infections;
  • replenishment of circulating blood volume - with significant blood loss;
  • other therapeutic measures.

Treatment of yellow fever is carried out by isolation of the patient in the hospital.

immunization

In the absence of specific treatment for yellow fever need to take care of its prevention.To date, there is a basic preventive measure - immunization of the population, that is vaccination.This concerns mainly tourists and people whose occupations are associated with travel to countries in Africa, South and Central America.

the benefit of vaccination is the fact that, according to the International Health Regulations at the entrance to most of the endemic countries require an international certificate of vaccination.

yellow fever vaccine is highly effective and safe, it provides a person 10 years of immunity from the disease, and in 95% of cases the immune system produces life.

The list of contraindications to vaccination against yellow fever include children up to 9 months.During epidemics of such age limit becomes equal to 6 months.Vaccination is not recommended for pregnant women.Vaccination of pregnant women are only allowed in the case of large-scale outbreaks of the disease, when there is a risk of infection.

common to many vaccines, including vaccines for yellow fever, Contraindications - an allergy to egg protein.This vaccine is one of those that are made on the basis of chicken embryos, so before you get vaccinated person must be convinced that he has no such allergies.

Vaccination against yellow fever is forbidden to do for people with severe immunodeficiency, as well as having the thymus gland.

Despite these contraindications, vaccination against yellow fever is completely safe, it is well tolerated and children, and adults.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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