3. Respiratory failure in children
4. Treatment of respiratory failure
Respiratory failure - isa pathological condition caused by a number of diseases and associated with the inability of light to provide a complete gas exchange.
Through breathing in the human body is carried out continuous gas exchange to maintain a balance between the oxygen coming from the outside and outputting carbon dioxide.Any violation of the respiratory function entails a violation of gas exchange and changes in blood composition.Reducing the amount of oxygen in blood and increase of carbon dioxide in it leads to hypoxia (hypoxia) such important for living organs like the heart and brain.
There are three degrees of respiratory failure:
- the first degree of a pathological condition characterized by the appearance of shortness of breath with moderate to severe physical exertion;
- second degree of respiratory failure manifests itself in the for
- third degree of respiratory failure characterized by the development of shortness of breath at rest, skin staining in cyanotic hue, hypoxia.
Based on the slew rate features distinguish acute and chronic respiratory failure.
Pathogenesis (mechanism of occurrence) are distinguished:
- parenchymal lung or respiratory insufficiency of the first type.Characterized by a decrease in blood oxygen content and low oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood.With difficult to oxygen therapy.The causes of the most frequent respiratory distress, pneumonia, or cardiogenic pulmonary edema;
- ventilation or respiratory hypercapnic failure of the second type.Characterized by increasing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood.It is easy to give in oxygen therapy.The reasons cause this pathological condition are defects rib muscle and skeleton chest, weakening respiratory muscles the patient, irregularities in the respiratory center of the regulatory function.
Based on the causes of this condition distinguishes obstructive, diffuse, hemodynamic, combined or mixed, restrictive or restrictive lung function impairment.
If any consideration of a pathological condition the gas composition of the blood is normal, say compensated state.If there is a decrease in oxygen partial pressure (and / or an increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide) in the arterial blood, then it is a decompensated state.
Symptoms Usually, the symptoms of this condition depends on the cause, it provoked.
characteristic symptoms of failure of respiratory function are:
- shortness of breath.Manifested in the form of lack of air, the patient puts a special effort in the commission of the respiratory movements.Shortness of breath may occur after physical activity of varying intensity, or even accompany the patient at rest;
- a syndrome of weakness and fatigue of the respiratory muscles.By increasing the frequency of respiratory movements there is an active involvement in the process of respiration of the neck muscles, muscles of the upper respiratory tract and the peritoneum.When the respiration rate exceeds 25-30 breaths per minute, the above-mentioned muscles are tired.With the reduction of respiratory rate up to 12 or less breaths per minute can happen full stop breathing;
- the presence of edema.This symptom occurs in the later stages of chronic insufficiency of respiratory function.Quite often a manifestation of heart failure;
- reducing the oxygen content in the blood.Outwardly manifested in the form of cyanotic skin color;
- increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.Tangible symptoms are tachycardia (increased heart rate), nausea, headaches, sleep apnea (sleep disorders).
respiratory function insufficiency occurs not only in adults and elderly people suffering from acute or chronic lung, heart and vascular diseases.
In children, this condition can be caused by diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract.In addition trigger the development of respiratory failure function can be foreign bodies, vomiting and regurgitation (by airway obstruction), chest trauma, the tongue when pyothorax and pneumothorax.Myasthenia gravis, damage to the central nervous system and the muscular dystrophies can also be causes of respiratory failure in children.
At the same time it is essential to provide emergency assistance in case of acute respiratory failure in children.From timely assistance it depends not only on the child's health, but also his life.
main objectives of the treatment of respiratory failure are:
- emergency care for acute respiratory failure.The fact that the treatment of acute respiratory failure should be carried out immediately forms, since the development of the disease state not time compensation mechanisms included;
- recovery ventilation and maintaining an optimal balance between the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood using the devices to saturate the blood with oxygen;
- treatment and prevention of diseases, which are the primary cause of respiratory failure.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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