4 May

Diphtheria - vaccination , symptoms , treatment, prevention

Contents:

1. Etiology and pathogenesis

2. clinical picture

3. Classification

4. Symptoms of diphtheria in children

5. diphtheria Treatment

6. Prevention

Diphtheria - an acute infectious disease characterized by lesions of toxic organism (especially the nervous and cardiovascular systems), as well as inflammation of the nose, throat and respiratory tract mucosa.In very rare cases, and affected skin.

main manifestation of the disease - is the formation of fibrinous films gray color on the mucous membranes of the oropharynx and tonsil surface.If you ignore the vaccination against diphtheria (diphtheria important aspect of prevention), this disease can lead to very dire consequences - death.

The article describes about the symptoms of diphtheria in children and adults.It also provides information on modern methods of prevention of diphtheria, and treatment of this disease.

Etiology and pathogenesis

diphtheria - Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria toxigenic strains of

microbes).It sticks with the flask-shaped bulges at the ends.The main source of the disease are people - healthy or sick carriers of diphtheria bacteria.The most dangerous are patients diphtheria pharynx, nose and larynx, as they actively released into the environment with exhaled air disease pathogens.The contact (through household items, hand) may extend this disease diseased skin diphtheria, eyes, wounds, and so on.Healthy carriers of the disease detected only during mass surveys.

gateway for infection of the pathogen can be all areas of the human body coverings.Most often these are oropharyngeal mucosa, more rarely - the mucous membrane of the nose, throat, genitals, conjunctiva, skin and wound surface.

clinical picture

Symptoms of diphtheria doctor infectious disease include: fever (38 ° C), malaise and sore throat.Often this infection in its initial stage is confused with the usual ARI.But after some time (1-2 days) is formed on the tonsils characteristic patina.At first, he is thin and whitish, but eventually thickens and becomes gray.The general condition of the patient deteriorates, voice changes.As for the previous diphtheria symptoms (runny nose, high fever and other symptoms of acute respiratory disease), they quickly retreat.

Inflammation, diphtheria film and sore throat after a while disappear, but the danger is still there, as the diphtheria exotoxin long period of time is in the patient's body.With great speed the toxin enters the bloodstream, affecting the nerves, heart and kidneys.That it leads to dangerous complications of diphtheria (nephrosis, myocarditis, multiple nerve damage).Disease severity is determined by complications, which in many cases lead to death.

Classification

Today, there are several forms of diphtheria, which are determined by local localization of the pathological process and its symptoms.Accordingly, the following types of the disease:

Diphtheria throat - this is the most common form of diphtheria in children and adults, which initially resembles ARI.He proceeds with moderate intoxication and gray coating on the tonsils.After 3-5 days of diphtheria film is very easy to remove.In addition, the lymph nodes of the patient and cause increased significantly painful.

nasal diphtheria is accompanied by slight intoxication.Breathing is difficult, released ichor or pus.Once the symptoms of this type of diphtheria include swelling of the nasal mucosa, film formation, erosions and ulcers.

Diphtheria larynx is characterized by being a minor violation, low-grade body temperature and signs of lesions of the respiratory tract (cough, change of voice, breathing difficulties).Over time, the symptoms of diphtheria of the larynx joins sweating, agitation, easing breathing, cyanosis, arrhythmia, tachycardia and somnolence.In some cases, this type of disease is accompanied by acute respiratory insufficiency.

Diphtheria eye.Catarrhal type of disease is very similar to a banal conjunctivitis (swelling and moderate redness of the conjunctiva, sero-purulent discharge from the conjunctival sac).Filmy form of the disease is characterized by severe swelling of the eyelids and grayish-white films on the conjunctiva.Toxic diphtheria eyes accompanied by edema okoloorbitalnoy fiber.

Diphtheria wounds.For this form of the disease characterized by redness edge of damaged tissue, dense infiltration of the surrounding skin, the presence of a dirty-gray plaque and long nezazhivlenie wounds.

Diphtheria skin, ear and genitals.These types of diseases are very rare and occur with diphtheria throat or nose.The affected area swells and becomes covered by a film of diphtheria.There is an increase in morbidity and lymph nodes.

Symptoms of diphtheria in children

Symptoms of diphtheria in children are quite diverse.They depend on the location (oropharynx, nose, throat, skin) of the pathological process.Common symptoms of the disease include: low-grade temperature, general weakness, tachycardia and diphtheria film.

most dangerous form of diphtheria in children is guttural.This type of infection is often accompanied by serious complications.The child's body temperature rises sharply, there is a strong cough, lost his voice and develop a breathing disorder that can lead to acute respiratory failure.The latter complication is very often ends in death.

Treatment Diphtheria Treatment Diphtheria

conducted strictly in the hospital.At the time of occurrence of serious complications of therapy is carried out in the intensive care unit.In order to cure diphtheria was the most effective approach to it must be very careful.Treatment of the disease includes drug therapy, nursing care for the sick, as well as some aspects of the prevention of diphtheria.

main method of treatment of diphtheria is antitoxic diphtheria serum, which can be applied without waiting for confirmation of the disease by laboratory tests.The antitoxin is administered intravenously from 20 000 to 100 000 IU (all depends on the time, type and severity of the disease).

antibiotics in the treatment of diphtheria used to further prevent infection.Today, most doctors use ampicillin, penicillin and erythromycin.

After recovery, patients are required to about two or three weeks rest at home.In addition, they are vaccinated against diphtheria.Disease prevention by vaccination is the most effective.

Prevention At the present time, diphtheria prevention includes four main aspects: vaccination against diphtheria (population immunization), the identification and treatment of all persons in contact, isolation of infected message and the Department of Health of an outbreak of disease.

To date, vaccination against diphtheria - this is the most effective method to prevent infection.Vaccination is 3;4.5;6 and 18 months.Then vaccinated against diphtheria put in 7 and 14 years.

persons who had contact with patients in order to diphtheria prevention is assigned a course of antibiotic therapy.

to prevention of diphtheria each must be treated very carefully, seriously and with the utmost responsibility, as the consequences of this disease could be the most unpredictable.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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