4 May

Diphyllobothriasis - symptoms , treatment, prevention

Contents:

1. Etiology diphyllobothriasis

2. course and symptoms diphyllobothriasis

3. Diagnostics

4. Treatment diphyllobothriasis

5. Prevention diphyllobothriasis

Diphyllobothriasis - a disease caused by infection with helminth group cestodosis kind difillobotrium.Worm infestation is accompanied by dyspeptic disorders, characterized by lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.Perhaps the development of B12-deficiency anemia.

Etiology diphyllobothriasis

pathogens are tapeworms of the genus Diphillobothrium, namely a tapeworm - the most common and studied.The body of the parasite reaches 2-9 meters and consists of a head (skolesa), and a long neck strobila consisting of a large number of segments.Characterized scolex oblong-oval shape with flattened sides and has two slots through which attachment occurs tapeworm to the intestinal mucosa.

In sexually mature tapeworm parasitic in the small intestine of the final host, highlighting the faeces immature eggs.The uterus contains man

y helminth eggs, which develop in fresh-water reservoirs.At temperatures above + 15 ° C the eggs go into germ water, which swallowed crustaceans, cyclops, after which the embryos are developing in the second stage.When ingested crayfish fish, further development of the larvae takes place in her body, they penetrate into the internal organs and muscles where in 3-4 weeks reach a length of up to 4 cm. After eating contaminated fish animal or a human worm in the host organism reaches sexual maturity andthe cycle is repeated.

The human intestine is most often a parasite, tapeworms rare few individuals, but there were cases habitat of more than 100 individuals at the same time.The duration of the life of the worm can be more than 20 years.Periodically part strobila rejected, standing out in the faeces in the form of tape.

The following discussion focuses on the basic symptoms diphyllobothriasis.

flow and symptoms diphyllobothriasis

diphyllobothriasis The incubation period is 30 to 90 days.During this time, trapped in the body of human parasites reach sexual maturity, are attached to the wall of the small intestine and are beginning to function.

clinical picture of the disease is determined by such factors as the intensity of the infestation and the individual characteristics of the human body.In some cases, the infestation may be asymptomatic and only set the allocation during a bowel movement of the body of the parasite.In this case the patient can recall the periodic abdominal pain, belching, and other similar symptoms diphyllobothriasis.

severe forms of infestation appear abnormal signs from the digestive organs, nervous and hematopoietic systems.Symptoms diphyllobothriasis thus are loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, paresthesia.In some cases, may appear unpleasant sensations in the tongue during use sour and salty foods, medicines.The skin may appear rash, very rare cramps, similar to the symptoms of epilepsy.

In the early stages of the disease, due to the toxic and allergic effects of metabolic products of the parasite, its antigens expressed by a symptom diphyllobothriasis as eosinophilia.

Approximately 2% of patients undergoing invasive, is developing B12 deficiency anemia.At the heart of this manifestation is diphyllobothriasis endogenous vitamin deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid, as a result of the fact that from food biologically active substances are not absorbed by the body and absorbed strobila tapeworm.Anemia symptoms include weakness, fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, palpitations, ringing in the ears, darkening of the eyes at the turn of the head, blanching of the skin, puffiness of the face, swelling of the lower extremities.

diphyllobothriasis The severity of symptoms depends on the intensity of infection, the presence of the patient's comorbidities and quality of food.Severe disease leads to the development funicular myelosis that appears blurred paresthesias, disturbances of superficial and deep sensitivity, and complicates the treatment process diphyllobothriasis.

Diagnostics

diphyllobothriasis diagnosis is not difficult.The disease is defined by conducting studies of feces for the presence of tapeworm eggs, carried out by methods of the native smear, thick smear Kato Fyulleborna, Kalantaryan et al.

is also possible to establish the diagnosis of macroscopic way, the allocation of parts of the feces helminth.

Treatment diphyllobothriasis

main drugs prescribed for the treatment of diphyllobothriasis in modern medical practice, is praziquantel (biltritsid).The preparation increases the permeability of cell membranes to helminth calcium ions, which leads to generalized muscle reduce parasite that becomes resistant paralysis.Praziquantel provides vacuolization and destruction of segments of the tapeworm, causing worms quickly dies.The effectiveness of treatment diphyllobothriasis this drug is 95%.

In developing tapeworm anemia anthelmintics administered together with vitamin B12.In the case of severe forms of anemia, vitamin B12 is administered prior to degelmentizatsii.

diphyllobothriasis After completing treatment, provided that the total elimination of the parasite with scolex, necessarily dispensary observation for at least 3 months with periodic examination of feces and blood.When you develop in patients due to the proliferation of the parasite intestinal obstruction body provided surgery.

In the absence of anemia in severe, treatment, prognosis diphyllobothriasis favorable.

Prevention diphyllobothriasis

To prevent the disease is necessary to observe the technology of preparation of fish dishes, to prevent water pollution by sewage and to improve the sanitary and hygienic literacy.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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