Dysphagia - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments


1. Causes of dysphagia

2. symptoms

3. Diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia

Dysphagia - swallowing disorder at some diseases of the esophagus, pharynx,nervous system.In most cases this characteristic is a manifestation of esophageal disease, so-called esophageal dysphagia.Esophagus - part of the intestine in the form of a muscular tube that promotes food from the back of the oropharynx to the stomach.

Dysphagia is common in preterm infants, the elderly, patients with disorders of the nervous system and brain.

Causes of dysphagia

to move the food from the oropharynx to the stomach the esophagus muscle structure must be in a constant tone.But there are reasons that violate the natural process.

One of the causes of dysphagia is the inability of the muscles and nerves which are carrying out the promotion of food through the esophagus, to perform their functions.The factors that trigger this condition, the following:

  • trauma to the head or spine;
  • of stroke;
  • some diseases, such as achalasia (a chronic disease of the neuromuscular apparatus of the esophagus), Parkinson's disease, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, post-polio syndrome;
  • immune system disease causing inflammation or neoplastic processes;myositis (muscle disease), polymyositis;
  • spasms of the esophagus;
  • scleroderma, which causes stiffness of the tissues of the esophagus.

One of the common causes of dysphagia is blocking the esophagus.It may occur under the influence of many factors.

1.Gastroezofagalny reflux.Some people develop weakness of the cardiac opening of the stomach.Thus, together with the gastric juice content of the stomach to the esophagus is thrown.Formed esophageal ulcer, which then scars, which contributes to a narrowing of the esophagus and the violation of its elasticity.

2.Rassloenie esophageal tissue.This pathology can be congenital or acquired.

3.Ezofagit.This is inflammation of the lining of the esophagus, which is caused by its infectious diseases, allergic reactions, irritation due to stuck in the esophagus tablets.

4.Divertikul esophagus.This cause of dysphagia is a bulging of the esophagus.It may be congenital or acquired.

5.Dobrokachestvennye or malignant tumors of the esophagus.

6.Opuholi, compressing the esophagus in the internal organs, such as bone spur on the vertebra, lymph nodes.

7.Vozrastnoe aging.This is the most common cause of esophageal dysphagia in the elderly.With age, a person lose muscle tone, including muscles and esophagus.


Symptoms of esophageal dysphagia indicate violations promote food through the esophagus into the stomach.At the same time the act of swallowing does not have any pain.But after the patient says "stop and jam" lump, a feeling of fullness in the back of the sternum.Typically dysphagia symptoms include severe pain.Pain is only possible in the case of diffuse esophageal spasm.

can identify the main symptoms of dysphagia:

  • violation promotion of food in the esophagus at the level of the oropharynx, which is accompanied by regurgitation of a lump in the mouth or nose;
  • feeling of suffocation;
  • severe cough;
  • salivation;
  • aspiration pneumonia (inflammation of lung tissue, appearing in them the penetration of a foreign agent);
  • impossibility of swallowing food or the need for more effort to be swallowed bolus.

The most common symptoms of esophageal dysphagia caused by intake of solid food, especially early in the disease.Greatly facilitates the process of swallowing food zapivanie water.Admission is usually liquid food is easier, although some forms of the disease symptoms of dysphagia accompany even swallow water.

Diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia

in the diagnosis of dysphagia is very important to determine the cause of which led to the development of this disease.First of all gastroenterological research used, in particular, fibrogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).EGD - endoscopic method of research, which allows you to see the top of the mucosal tissue of the gastrointestinal tract.This specialist can examine the resulting pathology.

In the case where the diagnosis doctor detects dysphagia ulcer or tumor biopsies taken with subsequent histological analysis.

esophagitis If symptoms are present, to determine the causative agent do bacteriological crop of esophageal contents.

In cases where it is determined that the cause of dysphagia are not pathological gastrointestinal tract, the patient is sent to a neurological examination.

dysphagia treatment is carried out simultaneously with the treatment of the underlying disease.

In many cases required emergency care for acute forms of the disease.For example, when casting a lump of food into the nasal cavity, you must first clear the airway of a person trapped in their food.Thereafter, the treatment of dysphagia is carried out in stationary conditions.In severe cases of illness food and water is introduced into the esophagus by means of a tube.

treatment of dysphagia, which is caused by esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus) performed using the aluminum-containing antacid preparations.By such means, reducing the acidity of the stomach, are Almagell, Fosfalyugel, Zantac and other drugs.

dysphagia patient must observe a special diet and a way of eating.The food should be taken in small portions fractionally.It is forbidden to eat cold food and hastily.Food should not be tight or dry.Going to bed can be no earlier than two hours after a meal.

diet used in the treatment of dysphagia, should contain food, easy to digest.From it are excluded sharp, spicy, smoked, fried, fatty foods, coffee, strong tea, fizzy drinks.Preference is given to milk-vegetable diet.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

make an appointment to see a doctor

Latest Blog Post

Urinary incontinence after childbirth - causes, treatment
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Causes of urinary incontinence after childbirth 2. Types of Incontinence 3. Diagnostics 4. treatment of urinary ...

Incontinence - Causes, national treatment , surgery
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Classification and types of diseases 2. Causes of incontinence 3. Symptoms of the disease 4. Drug and national t...

Causes of incontinence in children , adults, elderly
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Types of incontinence 2. Causes of incontinence 3. Incontinence in children 4. Incontinence in Adults 5. inco...