4 May

Diplopia - forms , causes, symptoms, treatments

Contents:

1. Causes of diplopia

2. symptoms

3. Types diplopia

4. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases

Diplopia - ablurred vision, in which deviation resulting from the visual axis of the eye, the visible image of the subject is doubled.The cause of ghosting is a deviation of the eyeball, which is why the image falls on the central eye is not a hole, but the other point of the retina.

Usually this disorder is characteristic of binocular vision (binocular diplopia).When you close one eye doubling effect disappears.But sometimes monocular diplopia - one eye sees a double image of the object.Ghosting does not disappear when close one eye.

Causes of diplopia

cause of the disease are usually different pathologies of the central departments of the visual analyzer and disorders of muscle balance.They appear with the weakening of the affected muscles of the eyes, shifted sideways or has limited mobility in the resulting eye.It is also the cause of diplopia are pathological processes in

the most eye-socket.

Most often diplopia causes a weakening or complete paralysis of the eye muscles, which violates the concerted movement of the eyeballs.This loss of coordination of movements can be in the defeat of the muscles responsible for the movement of the eyeball, or as a result of damage to the nerves that control these muscles.

In addition, the following may be the reasons for diplopia:

  • orbit trauma, which are formed by the infringement of eye muscles and turn the lower wall of the orbit;
  • disease cavity of the orbit, leading to the displacement of the eyeball;
  • bruising and swelling, which limit the movement of the eyeball or the cause of his immobility;
  • aneurysm (bulging of the artery wall) of the internal carotid artery, where the oculomotor nerve is compressed;
  • oculomotor nerve damage as a result of head injuries.

reason diplopia disease can be neurological origin, such as intracranial tumor processes or tuberculous meningitis.This disorder is one of the symptoms of alcohol or drug intoxication, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, thyrotoxicosis, botulism.Sometimes double vision develops after an injury or surgery on the brain, surgical treatment of retinal detachment, cataracts, strabismus.There are cases of the disease with psychoneurosis, fits of hysteria.

symptoms

diplopia main signs are the following:

  • double vision;
  • difficulties in determining the location of items;
  • frequent dizziness.

Symptoms of the disease depends largely on the location of the pathological process.If the disease struck the obliques, the DLR has image objects one over the other.In the case of direct muscle injury, there is a parallel double vision.Diplopia is characterized by varying degrees of eye deviation in the direction opposite from the affected muscles.As a result, it shows a lack of restraint or eyeball movement in the direction of the affected muscles.Often, in order to get rid of ghosting, a person tilts or turns his head towards destruction.

Two images of one object, that appear when diplopia, vary in brightness and contrast.One of them is slightly shifted both horizontally and vertically, is located at an angle to the latter.

Types diplopia

The disease is divided into binocular diplopia and monocular diplopia.

In most cases, binocular diplopia occurs.With this type of pathology is violated the parallelism of the visual axes of the eyes.They are moved, and the patient sees double image of objects.This binocular diplopia is different form.Most often diagnosed with sensory, motor or mixed, temporary or permanent, orbital, neuroparalytic form.

In rare cases, the patient develops monocular diplopia.With this type of image disorders diseases occur and sight of one eye.This results from the projection images of objects at two different portion of the retina of one eye at a time.The cause of monocular diplopia is usually partially blurred or subluxation of the lens of the eye.In addition, to promote the emergence of this disease may be diseases such as Policoro (congenital abnormal structure of the iris with several holes) or iridodialysis (eye injury, in which the iris is separated from the ciliary body).

There are the following forms of monocular diplopia:

  • refraction - the most common and easiest form;well corrected with glasses and contact lenses;
  • aberration - appears due to unevenness of the lens or cornea;its cause are diseases of the eye, causing coloboma (absence of a specific ocular tissue) and lens opacity, violations of the sphericity of the cornea;
  • pupillyarnaya - is a result of the presence in the iris additional holes;
  • Retinal - a consequence of the distortion of the relief and the violation of the sphericity of the retina in inflammatory, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases of the eye;
  • neurogenic - the least understood form of the disease, which is a functional disorder and occurs in hysteria, endocrine diseases, meningitis, encephalitis.

Diagnosis and treatment of diseases

main prerequisite for the staging of "double vision" of the diagnosis are complaints of the patient on the double vision.Specialist at survey carries special test control of the patient, when the viewing direction in the moving light source.After that the doctor puts on the coordinates of the images the map.This makes it possible to determine the affected eye muscles.

In modern medicine is increasingly being used this method to establish the damaged eye muscles as koordimetriya using oftalmokoordimetra.

In addition, use of a special diagnostic diplopia Cover test.With its help assess the condition of the position and mobility of the century.

Additionally examine the conjunctiva of the eyeball, color vision, refraction (refractive power of the eye), visual acuity.

method of treatment depends on the cause diplopia disease.In ophthalmology, infectious or neurological reason, therapy is primarily aimed at treating the underlying disease.

Treatment diplopia as the underlying disease, conducts a neurologist or neurosurgeon.

If pathology has arisen as a result of trauma, surgical intervention is necessary.Usually eye surgeon makes a resection (removal of part of the body) or a plastic eye muscles.Such operations are carried out not earlier than six months after the injury.

diplopia Often treatment involves optical correction of vision.For this purpose, prismatic glasses, significantly improves the clarity of view.

In the complex treatment of diplopia effectively use special exercises that expand the field of view, and restore functions of binocular vision.Some of these exercises are performed on special devices.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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