Iron deficiency in the body - symptoms, treatment


1. main causes of iron deficiency in the body

2. Classification of iron deficiency anemia

3. clinical picture

4. Diagnostics

5. Treatment of iron deficiency

adult human body contains 2.5 grams of iron.Although the minimum content of iron in importance is a unique trace element that participates in different molecular processes.Also, iron is considered essential constituent of myoglobin, hemoglobin and iron components.In other words, iron - is a trace element, without which none of the human body can not exist.

Today, many are faced with such a pathological condition is iron deficiency (iron deficiency anemia).Anemia occurs in almost all periods of human life.This can happen not only during the various diseases, but also in certain physiological states.

main causes of iron deficiency in the body

most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency in the body, since iron is needed for the process of the production of hemoglobin.

Iron deficiency anemia can be caused by

several reasons:

  • increased need for iron.
  • Blood loss of different genesis (chronic hemorrhoids, ulcerative and tumor processes in the gastrointestinal tract, endometriosis, acquired and hereditary pulmonary siderosis, donors (who often give blood), hemangioma of the internal organs, and so on.).
  • Congenital deficiency of iron.
  • malabsorption of iron.
  • Incorrect vegetarian diet can also lead to nutritional iron deficiency.
  • transferrin deficiency, which leads to disruption of the iron transport.

to iron deficiency anemia risk factors include heavy menstruation, lactation, repeated pregnancy and childbirth, as well as the teen years, in which there is rapid growth of the organism.Elderly may also be accompanied by a deficiency of iron in the body, as it increases the number of diseases that provoke anemia, for example, oncopathology, bowel diverticulosis, chronic renal failure, and so on.

Classification of iron deficiency anemia

At the present time using two stages of anemia:

  • 1 - latent iron deficiency, with no observed clinical picture.
  • 2 - iron deficiency with extensive clinical and laboratory symptoms.

also distinguish degrees of severity:

  • Easy.
  • average.
  • Heavy.

clinical picture

Symptoms of iron deficiency in the body can be grouped into two main syndromes: anemic and sideropenic.

Anemic syndrome (mostly with latent iron deficiency) occurs at the time of reducing the amount of red blood cells and hemoglobin, as well as when there is insufficient provision of oxygen to tissues.He is represented by the following symptoms: fatigue, weakness, palpitations, decreased performance, flickering flies in front of the eyes, shortness of breath on exertion, fainting.There is also a symptom of iron deficiency anemic syndrome may include: drowsiness, loss of memory and mental performance, paleness of the visible mucous membranes and skin, pasty face, stop, "bags" around the eyes, and so on.

sideropenic syndrome is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Reduction of reparative processes in the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Severe susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory and respiratory viral processes, due to the weakening of the immune system.
  • Prolonged fever to subfebrile values.
  • weakness of the sphincter of the bladder, which leads to a sudden urge to urinate and neuderzhivaniyu urine when laughing, sneezing and coughing.
  • Angular stomatitis' ll pick ", and cracks in the corners of the mouth.
  • Severe muscle weakness and fatigue.
  • Dystrophic changes of the skin, as well as its appendages (peeling, dryness and cracks in the skin, brittle, thinning and dull nails, brittle, hair loss, dull and early graying of hair, spoon-shaped concavity of the nail).
  • bluish color or marked blue sclera.
  • atrophic changes in the mucous layer of the gastrointestinal tract - atrophic gastritis, enteritis, dry lining of the esophagus, which leads to difficulty swallowing.
  • glossitis is also a symptom of iron deficiency in the body.It is characterized by redness of the tip of the tongue papillae atrophy and his sense of fullness and pain in the area of ​​language.
  • Perversion of smell.Patients like the smell of paint, gasoline, acetone, shoe polish, lacquers and other
  • dysgeusia -. An unusual desire to eat something malosedobnoe (tooth powder, chalk, sand, clay, coal, ice), as well as cereals, beef, raw dough, and so on.
  • addiction to sour, salty, spicy and spicy food.

First severity of iron deficiency anemia is not accompanied by clinical symptoms.It is found only in some laboratory studies.

latent iron deficiency - it is the second degree of the disease.It appears fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, a slight decrease of iron and ferritin levels in erythrocytes and blood serum.

With regard to the third degree of iron deficiency, its main manifestations are considered and anemic, and sideropenic syndromes.In the study of the cardiovascular system observed tachycardia, shortness of breath, systolic murmur at the apex, deafness of tones of heart, increased blood pressure, unmotivated fever, sleepiness during the day.


To identify the causes of iron deficiency anemia, a complete clinical examination of the patient:

  • General blood test - to determine the number of reticulocytes and platelets, as well as studying the morphology of red blood cells.
  • puncture bone marrow - for the differential diagnosis, especially with megaloblastic anemia.
  • Biochemical blood test - to determine the level of hemoglobin, bilirubin, iron, ferritin and TIBC.

Treatment of iron deficiency

Treatment of iron deficiency anemia include:

  • Remedy etiological factors (elimination of the causes that lead to a permanent deficit of iron in the body).
  • therapeutic food (for the treatment of iron deficiency is a diet that is rich in iron).
  • therapy with iron preparations.
  • anti-treatment of iron deficiency.
  • Prevention of iron deficiency anemia (iron supplement intake and daily intake of 100 grams of meat).


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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