1. Causes of brain glioblastoma
3. Symptoms glioblastoma
5. Treatment of glioblastoma
Glioblastoma - malignant and most dangerous astrocyte (glial) brain tumor.It consists of a poorly differentiated astrocytes with areas of vascular proliferation and necrosis.This disease is also characterized by disarray pathological growths of cells, combined with their nuclei polymorphism perifocal edema and extensive.The growth of glioblastoma rapid infiltrative tumor grows into the brain tissue, and the affected area is not clear traces of the border.The tumor has not metastasized outside the nervous system.For the disease characterized by the rapid development of clinical symptoms.
The most common tumor found in the temporal and frontal lobes, localized in the brain stem, cerebellum and spinal cord is rare.Sometimes glioblastoma brain develops from anaplastic astrocytomas and nizkostadiynyh, but in most cases - is the primary lesion.
Glioblastoma - the most common primary brain tumor.It is about 52% of primary tumors and 20% of all intracranial tumors.Despite this, the disease incidence is 2-3 cases per 100 thousand inhabitants of the countries of Europe and North America.
tumor develops from the glial cells of the central nervous system, which perform a support function and dividing neurons.To date, the exact causes of this type of glial tumors have not been established.There was a theory about the harmful effects of electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones work, but the scientific evidence is not received.Statistically, the risk factors for glioblastoma brain are:
- age, disease often affects people between the ages of 40-60 years;
- gender, tumor develops in men more often than women;
- the presence of pilocytic astrocytomas and fibrillary I and II degree.It was found that in 10% of cases of brain glioblastoma - a secondary tumor that develops from the astrocytic tumors of low-grade;
- genetic disorders as a result of certain diseases, such as neurofibromatosis;
- external factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, harmful chemicals, one of which - polyvinyl chloride;
Among the causes of the disease may also be some viral diseases, genetic predisposition and transmission bloodstream of infected antibodies to the cerebral cortex.
According to the classification of glial tumors, adopted by the WHO, glioblastoma brain belong to IV grade.There are 3 variations of this type of tumor:
- giant cell, characterized by a pronounced predominance of polynuclear giant cells to it;
- multiforme, the variety of the tumor is characterized by extreme cellular and tissue polymorphism.Cells of this type of tumor and anaplastic form different structures.As a result of obliteration of the lumen of the blood vessels of the circulatory system are frequent hemorrhage and necrosis areas.Fabric tumor contains many large arteriovenous shunts and blood vessels;
- gliosarcoma - this type of tumor has a sarcomatous component.
Specific symptoms of glioblastoma may be different and depend on the localization of cancer.The most common symptom of glioblastoma - a headache that is caused by increased intracranial pressure.
disease also can manifest seizures, dizziness, complaints of patients to drowsiness, blurred vision, numbness of extremities.It is often the tumor reaches a large size before symptoms appear glioblastoma.
Other symptoms of glioblastoma are memory disorders, changes in behavior and character, due to the destruction of the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain.
tumor takes many forms and is usually in the image has a heterogeneous structure.For imaging using brain MRI with contrast material, as the most informative method of diagnosis of glioblastoma.
also spend SPEKT and PET examinations for the differential diagnosis of astrocytoma grade IV from other types of tumors.
Due to the heterogeneity of tumors structure at a single sample may identify a low malignancy that is not relevant to the aggressiveness of the tumor.Therefore, the most reliable method of diagnosing - stereotactic biopsy with subsequent pathologic analysis.
tumor is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, so to cure glioblastoma non-radical methods impossible.Surgical removal of the tumor is by far the only way, allowing to extend the life of the patient as much as possible, as a combination therapy in which the radiation therapy is combined with the reception of the drug Temodal is effective only after prior removal of the tumor.
Treatment of glioblastoma surgically complicated infiltrative tumor growth character.During the operation is difficult to determine the boundaries of abnormal growths, as parts of neuroepithelial tumors differ little from the affected area surrounding edematous brain tissue.It solves this problem specially developed method which comprises the fluorescent detection of malignant cells with 5-aminolevulinic acid.In the course of the operation microscope is used with a particular source of blue light, a stream which malignant cells are illuminated, which facilitates the surgeon to accurately remove the tumor.
After surgical removal of the tumor with radiation therapy used in conjunction with taking the drug Temodal.But, in spite of the combined treatment of glioblastoma, the tumor almost always recurs.The prognosis of this disease is extremely disappointing.In glioblastoma multiforme, the average life expectancy after surgery and radiation is 40 weeks.
One recent achievements of modern medicine in the field of cancer treatment is drug Avastin, which is used, inter alia, for the treatment of glioblastoma after relapse.Avastin is an antibody that gives the growth and development of tumor blood vessels, and hence suppresses its growth and spread in tissue.The drug is targeted mechanism of action that allows you to control tumor growth and metastases with minor side effects of chemotherapy.The effectiveness of the drug for patients with recurrent astrocytoma grade IV, confirmed by clinical studies.As a first-line therapy of Avastin does not apply.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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