Hypothyroidism - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments


1. Types and causes of the disease

2. Symptoms of hypothyroidism

3. treatment of hypothyroidism thyroid

Hypothyroidism - a disease that develops due to decreased thyroid functiongland and decrease its production of hormones.

The disease may not manifest for a long time.This is due to the gradual start undetectable pathological process.In the mild to moderate stages of hypothyroidism thyroid health of patients is satisfactory, erased symptoms.

disease occurs in 1% of people young and 10% of elderly people.

Lack of thyroid hormone contributes to the development of systemic changes in the body.With thyroid hormones in cells of organs regulated energy metabolism.As a result of a lack of hormones tissues consume less oxygen, reduced energy consumption and the amount of recyclable energy substrates.This makes it impossible for the normal functioning of the organism cells.

The article tells about the causes of disease and type of hypothyroidism (subclinical, acquired, congenit

al hypothyroidism).It also provides information about modern means of medicine used to treat hypothyroidism.

Types and causes of the disease

Depending on the causes of the disease, there are different types of hypothyroidism.There

acquired and congenital hypothyroidism.

most common acquired form of the disease.The main reasons for its development is called the following:

  • chronic autoimmune thyroiditis - thyroid damage their own immune system, which can lead to hypothyroidism after years and even decades after the onset;
  • iatrogenic hypothyroidism - develops after complete or partial removal of the thyroid gland, or after treatment with reactive iodine;
  • reception thyreostatics in the treatment of diffuse toxic goiter;
  • significant shortage of iodine in water and food.

The cause of congenital hypothyroidism are congenital structural disorders of the thyroid gland or hypothalamus-pituitary system in utero.Fetal development with thyroid disorders monitor maternal thyroid hormones.After the birth of their child's level in the blood falls.The disadvantage of these hormones leads to permanent underdevelopment of the central nervous system of the child.It can manifest mental retardation of varying degrees, in violation of organs and skeleton.

Depending on the extent of violations of the following types of hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland:

1.Pervichny - is the result of thyroid disease in which increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).It arises after inflammation, hypoplasia (underdevelopment), aplasia (complete or partial hypoplasia) of the thyroid gland, iodine deficiency in the body.

2.Vtorichny - is caused by the pituitary lesion, characterized by low levels of TSH and T4 hormones.It causes damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary system as a result of the tumor, hemorrhage, trauma, radiation, surgery.

3.Tretichny - develops as a result of violation of the hypothalamus.

There is a specific form of the disease - subclinical hypothyroidism.Symptoms of this form of the disease is very poorly expressed.With this type of disease in a patient TSH hormone concentration increased, while the concentration of other hormones is at a normal level or decreased.Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in older people.Its cause is usually an autoimmune thyroiditis, resection of the thyroid, radioactive iodine therapy.Treatment of hypothyroidism subclinical in most cases is not required.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism depends on the cause of the disease, the rate of decrease amounts of thyroid hormones, age and condition of the patient.

Congenital hypothyroidism in a child can be seen already from the first days of his life.Signs of decreased activity of the thyroid gland are shown in the fact that the newborn sucks sluggishly, has a pronounced jaundice, reduced body temperature.The symptoms of hypothyroidism are also big belly of the child, his dry skin, swelling of the eyelids and face the baby, his distinctive, hoarse cry.

When persistent and long-term course of the disease in adults symptoms of hypothyroidism - puffiness, swelling of the face, yellowish skin color, swelling of the eyelids and limbs.Patients complain of tingling, burning, pain in the muscles, weakness and stiffness in the hands.Patients with hypothyroidism, thyroid note dry skin, dull and brittle hair, their high loss.At the same time they are constantly inhibited, apathetic, in severe stages of the disease have delayed speech.

As a result, swelling of the middle ear, a human tongue and larynx reduced hearing, voice becomes hoarse and low.

Due to the reduction of metabolic processes, in many patients the symptoms of hypothyroidism thyroid join constant chilliness, weight gain.Man suffers from nervous system disorders - reduced intelligence, attention and memory gets worse, there are sleep disorders, fatigue.

Patients showing signs of abnormality in the cardiovascular system (bradycardia, pericarditis, anemia, headache), digestive disorders (nausea, constipation, appetite deterioration).In women suffering from hypothyroidism, menstrual disruptions occur, there is a breast.

Subclinical hypothyroidism is often asymptomatic and detected in the laboratory blood analysis on hormones.But still, some patients notice symptoms of this form of hypothyroidism.Most often, this deterioration of attention and memory, a bad mood, depression, disorders of menstruation.However, apart from subclinical hypothyroidism, which are most susceptible to the elderly, a patient may be other diseases and disorders.For this reason, the true symptoms of this form of the disease is quite difficult to establish.

treatment of hypothyroidism thyroid

The main aim of hypothyroidism treatment is to replace the missing in the patient's thyroid hormones their artificial analogues - L-thyroxine (levothyroxine).

initial dose of the drug and its rate of increase depends on the extent of the disease, the patient's age and comorbidities, and the etiology of hypothyroidism - congenital or acquired.Therefore, dosing regimen in the treatment of hypothyroidism is always determined individually.

In the case of developing the disease as a result of radiation therapy or removal of the thyroid gland, as well as congenital hypothyroidism, treatment with synthetic hormones must continue for life.

Many doctors do not recommend to treat subclinical hypothyroidism type.They point to the more harmful side effects of substitution therapy, than the effect of its application.Only by revealing it in a pregnant woman must be compulsory treatment.

Hypothyroidism congenital forms necessary to begin to heal as soon as possible.Usually in children the treatment of disease using drugs levothyroxine sodium.It has a structure identical to that of the T4 thyroid hormone - thyroxine natural.When properly selected dose of the drug treatment of hypothyroidism in a child gives good results.Kid neither the physical nor in mental development will not differ from their peers.

There are times when hypothyroidism develops on the background of other diseases.Then, after the treatment of the underlying disease normalize thyroid function.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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