30 April

Hypopituitarism - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments

Contents:

1. Causes

2. Symptoms hypopituitarism

3. Diagnostics

4. Treatment of hypopituitarism

hypopituitarism - a disease for whichcharacterized by a decrease or complete cessation of the production of hormones by the pituitary gland, and the subsequent development of hypothyroidism, and hypogonadism gipokortizatsizma varying severity.In this clinical picture can vary from patient to patient, depending on what work is adjusted endocrine hormone by the pituitary gland which production is reduced or terminated.

Sometimes the disease begins abruptly, but a gradual progression is more typical for hypopituitarism.For a long time, perhaps a hidden course of the disease.

Malfunctions of the anterior pituitary gland can cause a deficiency of one (isolated or partial hypopituitarism), multiple, and sometimes all (panhypopituitarism) hormones that it produces.

reasons

disease for the development of this disease, there are many reasons.These include all sorts of lesions of the pituita

ry or hypothalamus, which regulate the pituitary gland.For example, brain tumors, skull trauma, vascular disorders such as aneurysms, arteritis, hemorrhages in the pituitary gland.Hypopituitarism may develop after surgery in the hypothalamic-pituitary irradiation zone or the area by any type of ionizing radiation.

Reduced pituitary function may cause serious infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, syphilis, malaria, and viral infections such as influenza, meningitis.The disease can develop as a result of encephalitis, typhoid, dysentery, and fungal infections purulent processes in the body.

Women may develop hypopituitarism due to complications during pregnancy and childbirth, such as eclampsia, sepsis, thrombosis and massive blood loss, since they lead to disruption of the microcirculation in the pituitary gland and hypoxia.Hypoxia can lead to violations of the pituitary gland in people with gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as long-term donation.

In some cases, the cause of hypopituitarism can not be found.

Symptoms hypopituitarism

Due to insufficient production of hormones develops secondary hormonal deficiency of other endocrine glands: thyroid, ovarian, adrenal and others.This in turn inhibits hormone-dependent processes in the body, such as growth, sexual function, etc.

hypopituitarism first symptom is reduction of sexual desire and potency in men and menstrual irregularities, until the complete cessation of menses and infertility in women.Also, symptoms of hypopituitarism are loss of hair under the armpits and pubic.In women, moreover, it appears dry vagina syndrome.In men, hormones gonadotropin deficiency leads to impotence, reduced sperm production, testicular atrophy.It is also possible loss of some male secondary sexual characteristics such as hair stop growing on your face.

In addition, the symptoms of hypopituitarism include pale complexion, decreased body temperature, low blood pressure, drowsiness, fatigue, loss of interest in life.Sometimes patients indicate the inability to withstand hunger.

case of insufficient production of growth hormone adult patients almost do not have any clinical symptoms of the disease, while in children growth hormone deficiency results in stunted growth and sexual development may cause the development of dwarfism.

Diagnostics

deficiency of pituitary hormones inevitably causes lowering function of the endocrine glands, which are controlled by these hormones.Therefore, if the identified deficiency of thyroid hormones, adrenal and other glands doctor should imply the possibility of violation of the pituitary gland.Thus in adult patients are of great importance history data, including pituitary surgeries and radiation delivery, complicated massive bleeding, etc.

Detection disorders pituitary structure usually by computed tomography or magnetic resonance tomography of the brain.Furthermore, blood tests prescribed for the content of certain hormones.For the study of blood vessels that supply the pituitary gland, using angiography.

to the current level of medical science to determine the amount of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland - a difficult task, as there are no reliable tests to assess this indicator.In the body of the release of growth hormone occurs certain portions several times a day, with the greatest amount thereof is released during sleep.Therefore, a momentary hormone levels in the blood is not informative and shows its overall amount in the body.Growth hormone deficiency is confirmed by analysis on the blood levels of IGF-1, IGF growth since its level slowly changes proportionally to the total amount of growth hormone by the pituitary gland.

When the diagnosis is necessary to consider that the existence of such symptoms of hypopituitarism may occur due to a temporary decrease in pituitary function.This can happen as a result of prolonged fasting or cirrhosis caused by alcohol abuse.Another common cause is deficiency of pituitary hormones prolactin-producing pituitary tumor that compresses as pituitary growth and may lead to its destruction.

Treatment of hypopituitarism

choice of treatment method in hypopituitarism is conducted taking into account the disease that caused the failure of the pituitary gland.Typically the correction function of the pituitary insufficiency is assignment of missing hormones target glands.So, when there is insufficient development of thyroid-stimulating hormone is necessary to take thyroid hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone - synthetic adrenocortical hormones glucocorticoids.By reducing the potency in men appointed by the male sex hormones.Male adolescents during puberty need to take human chorionic gonadotropin.Women require cyclic hormone replacement therapy with the drug administration of estrogen and progesterone.Growth hormones are usually administered only in childhood.

If the cause of hypopituitarism is a pituitary tumor, it is necessary to take measures for its treatment.A small tumor, which does not produce prolactin, is usually recommended to remove by surgery through the nose.Tumors that produce prolactin, provides treated by administering the drug bromocriptine.Moreover, for high-voltage use tumor destruction or proton irradiation pituitary.It should be borne in mind that exposure may cause decrease in the pituitary gland and its gradual loss, so you need a regular annual survey to assess the activity of the target glands.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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