Hypokalemia - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments


1. Causes of hypokalemia

2. Symptoms of hypokalemia

3. treatment of hypokalemia

4. Prevention

called hypokalemia disease, which is caused bypotassium deficiency in the body.It is characterized by a significant decrease in potassium ion concentration in plasma.Potassium is directly involved in the regulation of electrolyte and water balance, and is responsible for homeostasis.That many metabolic processes are carried out due to potassium.Also, potassium is essential for removing toxins from the body.Its deficiency adversely affect the mental activities and central nervous system, as it is together with other substances involved in providing oxygen to the brain.Potassium enters the human body, primarily with food.The average daily requirement for potassium adult is about 3 grams per day, and for a child - in the region of 16-30 mg per kilogram body weight.

Causes of hypokalemia

potassium leakage from the body can occur for many reasons - renal and extrarenal.

By extrarenal causes of hypokalemia include: insufficient potassium intake from food, potassium redistribution (when administered epinephrine or insulin when used with folic acid, periodic hypokalemic paralysis and rapidly growing tumors), loss through the gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, diarrhea, excessive use of laxatives).If the cause of potassium deficiency became prolonged vomiting or diarrhea with liquid stools, in which case the patient loses not only potassium, and sodium, and magnesium, which further exacerbates the infringement.

Renal causes of hypokalemia are drug-caused - in the treatment of penicillin, diuretics (except potassium-sparing), gentamicin, theophylline, amphotericin B (for chronic and acute intoxication), as well as hormone-induced - in malignant hypertension, reninsekretiruyuschih tumors, diseases of the adrenal glands,disorders with reduced effective arterial blood volume.

cause of hypokalemia are and grueling exercise.Professional athletes do not care about the additional introduced into your daily diet all the essential trace elements, eventually collide with all the symptoms of hypokalemia.Strong emotional turmoil and constant depression can also cause hypokalemia.

Some symptoms of hypokalemia can feel the sweet lovers, as well as those who are overly concerned about the figure, exhausting themselves diets and reckless hunger strikes.Such people are at risk of hypokalemia disease, so they should be carefully monitored for the appearance of its symptoms.

Symptoms of hypokalemia

The main symptoms of hypokalemia include:

  • decreased performance and chronic fatigue;
  • marked apathy, depression, confusion;
  • muscle weakness;
  • weakening the protective properties of the organism from various toxic effects;
  • disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, nausea and vomiting;
  • adrenal exhaustion and lowering the adaptation properties of an organism;
  • disorders of the respiratory system, accompanied by fast or shallow breathing;
  • impaired renal function, urinary frequency;
  • brittle hair and dry skin;
  • problems with gestation in pregnancy, cervical erosion or infertility.

Many symptoms of hypokalaemia are closely related to the cardiovascular system as the heart is more exposed potassium deficiency.These symptoms include: low blood pressure, heart failure, heart attacks, tachycardia, arrhythmias, deafness heart sounds, functional failure, and myocardial metabolic disorders.

treatment of hypokalemia hypokalemia

Treatment should be aimed at the elimination of all potassium leaks from the body, as well as the replenishment of this element.For small losses is sufficient to take medications that increase potassium in the body, for example, Panangin.Also appointed a special diet, suggesting the use of foods rich in potassium.

patients with kidney disease who are forced to take diuretics, hypokalemia treatment will be directed to potassium retention in the body with the help of medication, supporting the necessary level of concentration of potassium in the blood.These drugs include Asparkam, Panangin, Veroshpilakton et al.

hypokalemia All of the above symptoms are often observed in other serious diseases of various organs, so effective treatment of hypokalemia in these cases will be an additional condition for recovery.

In severe cases of hypokalemia urgently needed intravenous administration of large doses of potassium chloride.At the same time it is necessary to observe the activity of the heart.Such treatment of hypokalemia is an emergency and should be accompanied by frequent laboratory tests on the potassium content in the blood plasma.

Prevention Prevention of the disease in children and adults, as well as the treatment of hypokalemia, involves the use of large amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables, which act as the main source of potassium for the human body.Particularly useful are bananas, baked potatoes with skin, dried fruit (apricots, figs, raisins), oil seeds.It should reduce the consumption of sweets and alcohol.From traditional morning coffee should be abandoned and replaced by a contrasting shower - it will help to avoid leaching of potassium from the body and prevent the development of symptoms of hypokalemia.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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