1. mechanism of development, causes and types of hypogonadism
3. Diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism
Hypogonadism - a disease thatIt characterized by insufficient gonads work, violation of sex hormone production.
In most cases, this disease is marked hypoplasia of internal and external genitalia, as well as secondary sexual characteristics.In addition, in patients with manifest disorders of protein and fat metabolism - cachexia (emaciation of the body) or obesity, cardiovascular disorders, changes in the skeletal system.
Hypogonadism is much more common in men than in women.
male sexual organs (testicles) and female (ovaries) produce sex hormones.The sex glands that produce sex cells, called gonads.With a lack of sex hormones produced appear dysplasia or genital organs function.At the same time the production of sex hormones controls the pituitary gland through its hormones.Pituitary hormones ar
insufficient production of hormones does not allow the body to develop normally and fulfill their bodies function.
Depending on the cause of the disease is isolated primary hypogonadism and secondary hypogonadism.
Primary hypogonadism is caused by lack of functioning of the testes in men and ovaries in women.There are the main causes of this form of the disease:
most common primary hypogonadism is Klinefelter syndrome in males and Turner syndrome in women.
Secondary hypogonadism develops when there is insufficient functioning of the brain centers that control the production of sex glands.These think tanks called the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.This form of the disease is also called hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
There are reasons that contribute to the development of secondary hypogonadism:
disease that often leads to the development of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in males, called Kallmann syndrome.
clinical symptoms of hypogonadism depend on the patient's age and the degree of insufficiency of sex hormones.
development of hypogonadism in childhood boys may contribute to a lack of muscle, beard, problems with growth.Boys have a high-pitched voice, the underdevelopment of the larynx.Often these boys there is the small size of the penis, testicles, benign breast enlargement.In adult male hypogonadism leads to the emergence of sexual dysfunction, loss of muscle mass, an increase in mammary glands, reduction of body hair on the body.In almost all cases of hypogonadism in men is decreased testicular size, sperm production, decreased sexual function, infertility.In addition, the patient often develops obesity of female type, the skin becomes thinner and loses its elasticity.
development of hypogonadism in girls during childhood leads to a lack of menstruation, underdevelopment of the chest, a slight increase.For these girls the characters flat buttocks and a narrow pelvis.With the development of the disease after puberty women stop menstruating, lost hair on the body, there is a decrease in libido, genital tissue thinning.
If the cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism became a brain tumor, the patient may complain of loss of vision, headache, deterioration of health, constant fatigue.The most common tumor of the pituitary is a prolactinoma.At its formation in a patient can be isolated from the milk of the breast.
diagnosis of hypogonadism includes history data collection, patient survey, instrumental and laboratory research methods.
Using X-ray examination determine bone age.In order to assess the bone mineral densitometry carried saturation.
Women held ultrasound genitals, which reveals a decrease in the uterus and ovaries.
Laboratory studies with hypogonadism primarily consist in analyzing blood testosterone in men and estrogen in women.Also, conduct research on the pituitary hormones that stimulate the gonads.In addition, prescribed tests for thyroid hormones, anemia and iron content in blood prolactin levels and semen analysis in men.
case of suspected pituitary pathology, the physician directs the MRI or CT of the brain.
method for treating hypogonadism is selected for each patient individually.It is aimed at eliminating the causes of the disease and reducing symptoms.
main method of treatment for women and men are hormonal preparations (replacement therapy).They contain estrogen for women and testosterone for men.Drugs made in the form of tablets, injections, gel or patch.
With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, surgery is used to treat hypogonadism.Surgical treatment in men is testicular transplantation, phalloplasty (in the case of underdevelopment of the penis).Currently, such surgery is performed using microsurgical techniques with complete control of the patient and the transplanted organ.
replacement therapy in the treatment of hypogonadism are not held with malignancies genitals, liver, kidney, cardiovascular system.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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