Hypertensive crisis - the symptoms , first aid , treatment


1. Causes of crisis

2. Classification

3. Symptoms of a hypertensive crisis

4. First aid in hypertonic crisis

5. Treatment of hypertensive crisis

hypertensive crisis - a condition characterized by a pronounced rise in blood pressure (up to 220/120 mm Hg or higher..), which is accompanied which become neurovegetative disorders, as well as major changes in the central nervous system, large vesselsand heart.

arterial hypertension in some cases can cause the development of a crisis.The duration of this condition can vary from a few hours to several days.

hypertensive crisis often develops on the background of hypertensive disease with a malignant course.In addition to this condition affects women in menopause.

Causes of crisis

Among the main causes of hypertensive crisis can be identified emotional stress or anxiety, excessive alcohol and salt, a sharp change in weather conditions, the cessation of the use of antihypertensive drugs such as? Adrenoblokatory and clonid


Fear, anxiety, chills, tremors, flushing, face swelling, recurrent vomiting, neurological disorders with the dissociation of the reflexes in the lower and upper limbs, blurred vision due to haemorrhage in the structure of the eye or swelling of the optic nerve often accompany the course of hypertensive crisis.Encephalopathy, as a rule, can manifest itself through irritability, depression and euphoria.

In severe forms of the disease may be accompanied by pulmonary edema, coma, thrombosis and embolism of various arteries, acute renal insufficiency, which is characterized by a decrease in urine output and azotemia.

Classification There are two main types of crisis.

first type (hypertonic) is shown, as a rule, in the early stages of hypertension.For this type of characteristic of increased heart rate, increased systolic blood pressure, the abundance of "vegetative signs."

second type (hypokinetic) occurs mainly in the later stages of hypertension at high levels of blood pressure.For this state is characterized by the gradual development of sufficient and severe course, accompanied by cardiac and cerebral symptoms.

Symptoms of a hypertensive crisis

Among the main symptoms of a hypertensive crisis can distinguish sharp headache in the neck, as well as an increase in diastolic blood pressure of 110-120 mm Hg above.Art.In addition, this condition is accompanied by symptoms of hypertensive crisis, such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, partial loss of visual fields and redness of the skin.Excitation, irritability and constricting pain in the chest are also infrequent symptoms of hypertensive crisis.

First aid in hypertonic crisis

First aid in hypertonic crisis is first and foremost to put the patient to bed and lifted his head a little.After that is necessary to ensure the patient's full mental and physical rest.

During the first aid treatment of hypertensive crisis is necessary every 15 minutes to carry out the control of heart rate and blood pressure until the arrival of the doctor.It should also be noted that the first aid for hypertensive crisis should be provided as quickly as possible, without wasting a minute.

When tachycardia occurred against a background of high blood pressure, apply a means belonging to the group of non-selective beta-blockers.

For effective relief of hypertensive crisis used captopril, especially if there is a history of heart failure, cardio or diabetes.

The use of nifedipine in pregnancy is recommended with concomitant pathology of broncho-pulmonary system and kidneys.

Among distractions procedures carried out in the first aid treatment of hypertensive crisis, we can distinguish hot foot bath;mustard on the lower back, neck and legs;cold-to-head in acute headaches.

Treatment of hypertensive crisis

As a rule, the treatment of hypertensive crisis is stationary, because only in rare cases, this condition has no systemic exposure.In addition the treatment of hypertensive crisis is based on the appointment of bed rest, as well as a special "hypertonic" diet.The main role in the treatment of emergency relief plays a hypertensive crisis, ie the administration of drugs designed to stabilize the cardiovascular system, lower blood pressure, protect the target organs.

After the patient out of the critical condition, the treatment of hypertensive crisis is the use of funds, stabilizing the patient's condition, as well as contributing to the improvement of metabolic processes.In addition it is recommended to dose adjustment of drugs used to combat major diseases.It should also be noted that if the crisis occurred for the first time, it is necessary to diagnose the causes.

For relief of hypertensive crisis is used clonidine - antihypertensive agent of central action, designed for oral or intravenous administration.

With nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, also cropped hypertensive crisis.The drug helps to relax smooth muscle and increase the peripheral and coronary vessels.In this state, it is also taking sodium nitroprusside, intended for intravenous drip.The drug is prescribed for the simultaneous development of renal failure, hypertensive encephalopathy, dissecting aortic aneurysm.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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