Hyperthyroidism - symptoms, causes , symptoms, treatment


1. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

2. reasons

3. Diagnostics

4. Treatment of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism - a syndrome characterized by overactivethyroid operation and, accordingly, generation of too active thyroid hormones (T3 and T4).Excess hormones in primary hyperthyroidism is produced as a result of cancer disease itself.In secondary and tertiary hyperthyroidism, pituitary and hypothalamus, respectively, stimulate the production of hormones.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

This condition is characterized by the acceleration of the flow of all processes in the body.Among the main symptoms of hyperthyroidism can be identified palpitations, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure.In some cases, there are signs of hyperthyroidism, such as fever, fine hand tremor, sweating, in which the skin becomes moist.Fatigue, weakness, nervousness, against the backdrop of increased physical activity are also symptoms of hyperthyroidism.In spite of increased appetite, with most patie

nts experiencing weight loss, insomnia, frequent stools, diarrhea.

It should be noted that these signs of hyperthyroidism may not occur in the elderly.In this case, such a condition commonly referred to as a disguised form of hyperthyroidism.At the same time patients have feelings of weakness, drowsiness or lethargy.There is a risk of developing depression.Also cases of cardiac disorders and heart rhythm disorders in the elderly are more common than in younger people.

This syndrome may be associated with ocular symptoms of hyperthyroidism, among which are eyelid edema and periorbital tissue, resulting in growing exophthalmos (bulging eyes).Also marked signs of hyperthyroidism, such as irritation of the eyes, excessive tearing, and abnormal sensitivity to light.After normalization of the secretion of the thyroid gland hyperthyroidism ophthalmic symptoms disappear.Graves' disease is an exception.He is accompanied by a specific eye symptoms of hyperthyroidism, among which are the extension of the eye slits, glitter eye, upper eyelid lag from the iris when looking up and down, no namorschivaniya forehead when you look up, loss of the ability to fix the eyes at close range, as well as rare flashes.Violation of the autonomic innervation of the eye is the cause of these symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

Causes Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (80% of cases).It should be noted that the most vulnerable to the emergence of this syndrome is a woman.This circumstance is due to autoimmune reactions.In most cases the syndrome is manifested on the background of other autoimmune diseases (autoimmune glomerulonephritis, autoimmune hepatitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and others).

When inflammation of the thyroid (thyroid) is shown the stage of hyperthyroidism.Due to the fact that the inflammatory process can cause damage to the thyroid gland, transient occurs after a period of increased activity (in most cases) or irreversible decrease in activity (hyperthyroidism).

In some cases, components of the thyroid gland (adenoma), tissue growth areas not regulated by mechanisms that control the functioning of thyroid gland, resulting in produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones.The thyroid gland may form one or more nodes.When multinodular toxic goiter (Plummer's disease), multiple nodes are formed.Moreover, the older the person, the greater the likelihood of developing this syndrome him.Reduced sensitivity of anterior pituitary hormone thyroid, and pituitary tumor can cause the development of secondary hyperthyroidism.

Among the main reasons for the development of tertiary forms of the syndrome can be distinguished neurotic condition characterized by excessive release of thyrotropin, and the state, stimulating continuous activation of noradrenergic neurons in the hypothalamus, against which increases the synthesis of T3 and T4.

Diagnosis In most cases, the blood levels of T3 and T4 levels increased with the exception of situations where there is abnormally high tissue sensitivity to hormones data.For a primary form of the syndrome is characterized by low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, and for secondary and tertiary forms - increased.

the diagnosis of the disease is carried out using a sample with radioactive iodine.Increased allocation of T3 and T4 is observed at an increased absorption of iodine by the thyroid gland.Absorption reduced admission T3 and T4 into the bloodstream from the decaying gland (thyroiditis, or if the tumor).

antibodies to various thyroid antigens found usually in autoimmune processes in blood.To determine the state of the prostate (its magnitude, uniformity and the presence of nodes) using ultrasound.

Treatment of hyperthyroidism

Based on the cause and extent of damage to the thyroid gland, can be used surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism, conservative therapy (drugs that prevent the synthesis of T3 and T4), as well as radioactive iodine therapy.hyperthyroidism treatment also involves the patient's abstinence from alcohol and smoking.In addition to the treatment of hyperthyroidism is recommended to follow a certain diet with plenty of fat, protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.Besides diet, observed in the course of hyperthyroidism treatment, suggests limiting foods that stimulate the cardiovascular and nervous system (coffee, strong tea, spices, chocolate).


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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