Hyperparathyroidism - diagnosis , symptoms, treatment


1. Causes and types of diseases

2. Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism

3. disease development

4. diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism

5. hyperparathyroidism Treatment

Hyperparathyroidism - endocrine disease, which causes increased production of parathyroid hormone.The disease ranks third among all endocrine pathologies.Women hyperparathyroidism occurs 2-3 times more often than men.The risk increases significantly with age.

Increased production of PTH promotes the leaching of calcium from the bones, and thus increase its content in the blood plasma.There is a replacement of bone tissue by fibrous appear rough deformation of the skeletal system.The high calcium concentration in blood leads to the formation of calcifications in the internal organs.All this negatively affects the walls of blood vessels and the kidney.In severe hyperparathyroidism can be even death of the patient from serious pathologies of the circulatory or kidney failure.

further worsens the renal education

in the upper urinary organs calcium phosphate stones.Increased calcium levels in the body leads to hypertension, memory impairment, depression, muscle weakness.

The article focuses on the types of the disease (primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary and tertiary forms of the disease), symptoms, diagnostic methods, hyperparathyroidism and methods of treatment of this disease.

Causes and types

disease Depending on the cause of the disease distinguish between four types of hyperparathyroidism.

1.Pervichny hyperparathyroidism.The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is a form of prostate adenoma one.Less common are multiple adenomas, which hit several glands.Very rarely, primary hyperparathyroidism can be caused by cancer of the parathyroid gland.Adenomas are usually found in older people, especially common in women during menopause.Thyroid cancer may be caused by exposure of the neck and head.

2.Vtorichny hyperparathyroidism.This type of disease is caused by other diseases that result in reduced levels of calcium.The lack of calcium in the blood leads to the release of parathyroid hormone that causes hypercalcemia.For a healthy human body is normal regulation.But in severe chronic pathologies in which the calcium level is lowered for a long time, such a release of hormones leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism.The most common causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism are malabsorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal system and severe kidney disease.In addition, the disease develops in many patients on hemodialysis who underwent resection of the stomach, with severe liver pathologies, in children with rickets.

3.Tretichny hyperparathyroidism.The reason for this type of disease is transferred kidney transplantation.

4.Psevdogiperparatireoz.This type of hyperparathyroidism is often accompanied by the development of cancer - breast, kidney, lung, multiple myeloma.One of the main causes of call psevdogiperparatiroza presence of cancer cells producing PTH.

Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism

Often the onset of primary hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic, which leads to late diagnosis of the disease and in many cases significantly complicates the treatment of hyperparathyroidism.

At the beginning of a more serious disease the first symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are signs of a lesion of the musculoskeletal system.The patient feels pain and weakness in certain muscles.He was hard to get up from a chair without support, he often stumbles, falls, there is a pain in the feet, looseness in the joints.

characteristic initial symptom of hyperparathyroidism may be loosening and loss of teeth perfectly healthy.In severe bone deformities increase the patient may be reduced by 10-15 centimeters.

hyperparathyroidism following symptoms are signs of developing renal failure.

In addition, patient symptoms occur lesions of the gastrointestinal tract - loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, frequent constipation, flatulence, sharp pains in different parts of the abdomen.Possible erosion and ulcerative lesions with frequent bleeding in different organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

Already in the early stages of primary hyperparathyroidism show signs of damage to the nervous system: apathy, depression, drowsiness, memory impairment.


diseases With the development of this disease occur pathology of the cardiovascular system and eye damage, which are caused by the deposition of calcium in the vascular walls.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism accompanies diseases that cause an increase in the production of parathyroid hormone, usually a kidney disease.The most common symptoms of this type of hyperparathyroidism are diseases of the skeletal system.In addition patients are formed calcification in major vascular walls and soft tissues.Many patients suffer from eye disease in the form of calcification of the cornea and conjunctiva, which is accompanied by conjunctivitis is often exacerbated.

Symptoms of tertiary hyperparathyroidism are almost the same as the secondary.

diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism

The diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism conduct laboratory and instrumental methods of research.

hyperparathyroidism The laboratory diagnostic methods include blood and urine tests for the presence of calcium and phosphate.When establishing a double hypercalcemia determine the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood plasma.

In addition, when the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism conducted magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography of the neck and head, ultrasound.

very important in the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism differentiate it from other diseases in which increased calcium concentration in blood as well.Otherwise, the wrong medication can be assigned, and will continue to develop hyperparathyroidism.

treatment of hyperparathyroidism

The only effective treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism is called surgery.But as the disease is found mainly in older people, the physician should carefully consider the feasibility of the operation is still at the stage of diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism.

There are relative and absolute indications for surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism.

absolute indications for surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism set of laboratory diagnostic methods hyperparathyroidism - calcium concentration in the blood above 3 mmol / l, severe kidney disease, stones in the upper urinary organs, severe degree of osteoporosis, daily excretion of calcium in the urine of more than 10 mM.

When surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism, the doctor removes the tumor, which produces PTH.

Patients who are not candidates for surgical intervention, are under constant medical supervision.They appoint a permanent control of the level of calcium in the blood, the blood pressure values.Every 6-12 months, these patients should undergo ultrasound of the kidneys and bone densistometriyu to control the main symptoms of hyperparathyroidism.

Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism form held in parallel with the treatment of the underlying disease.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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