2. Symptoms of hypercalcemia
3. treatment of hypercalcemia
hypercalcemia - high calcium content in the blood plasma or serum, in which the indicatorblood calcium exceeds 2.5 mmol / l.
Hypercalcemia occurs as a rule, for two reasons:
- excessive intake of calcium in the human body.It may be due to excessive consumption of milk and dairy products.Therefore, hypercalcemia often occurs in people suffering from plague, as they because of the circumstances forced to adhere to a specific diet;
- increased absorption of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract.Often the cause is associated with an overdose of vitamin D.
main cause hypercalcemia believe hyperparathyroidism - increased production of PTH parathyroid glands.Thus almost 90% of the human adenoma determined (benign tumor) one of these glands.In 10% of the iron is increased without any concomitant tumor processes and produces increased amounts of the hormone.Malignant tumors of the parathyroid gland
However, malignant tumors of the lung, kidney or ovaries often cause hypercalcemia, as they generate a great amount of protein, whose effect is very similar to PTH.
metastases of malignant tumors can spread to the bone and destroy bone cells, thereby increasing the calcium content in the blood.This scenario is typical of hypercalcemia malignant tumors of the lung, breast and prostate.The same principle can be the cause of hypercalcemia and multiple myeloma - a cancer that affects the bone marrow.
Increase in blood calcium concentration can be caused by other malignancies, but is a direct relationship between them is not yet completely understood.
cause of hypercalcemia may be Paget's disease and other diseases accompanied by destruction of bone tissue and loss of the bones of calcium.Furthermore, prolonged violation of human mobility (bed rest due to trauma, stroke, etc.) also leads to the fact that the bone loses calcium and he enters the bloodstream, and therefore, may cause hypercalcemia.
Increase in blood calcium concentrations may remain unnoticed for a long time, since the symptoms of hypercalcemia in humans may be absent altogether.Most often reveal changes in the blood after taking it on study for quite different reasons.
Sometimes after a patient survey fails to immediately determine to what caused these blood parameters.As a rule, the problem lies in the peculiarities of the patient's food or taking drugs that contain calcium.In some cases, to identify the causes of hypercalcemia requires additional laboratory and X-ray examinations.
Early symptoms of hypercalcemia include constipation, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and vomiting.Dehydration can also be a symptom of hypercalcemia, since an excessive amount of calcium in the blood causes the kidneys to work harder.As a result, they produce excessive amounts of urine, and the body loses fluid at a rapid pace.
severe symptoms of hypercalcemia are heart rhythm disturbances and impaired brain function.There are emotional disorders, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, and even coma.In severe cases, it can not be ruled death.
When chronically elevated calcium in the blood of patients can form kidney stones.Prolonged hypercalcemia leads to the fact that renal calcium-containing crystals formed, which can cause irreversible damage to the organ.
method of treatment of hypercalcemia depends on the cause of this state, and the index of the concentration of calcium in the blood.If this figure is less than 2.9 mmol / L, the treatment of hypercalcemia is to remove the root cause, which caused an increase in the amount of calcium in the blood.At the same time patients are encouraged to drink as much fluid to prevent dehydration and remove excess calcium through the kidneys.It should be understood that this recommendation is only suitable for patients who have not compromised the function of the kidneys.
If the calcium concentration above 3.7 mmol / L or if symptoms persist disorders of brain functions fluid intravenously.Again, subject to the condition that the kidneys are working properly.
mainstay of treatment of hypercalcemia are diuretics that promote renal excretion of calcium.An example of such a drug could be Furosemide.
In severe cases, the ineffectiveness of the measures carried out by the treatment of hypercalcemia is carried out by dialysis.In addition, the patient can be administered bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and hormone preparations, retard calcium excretion from the bone.Hyperparathyroidism
treated, usually by surgical removal of one or more parathyroid glands affected.In 90% of cases the operation leads to the absolute recovery of the patient.
hardest amenable to treatment of hypercalcemia caused by the presence of the patient's cancer.If the tumor can not handle, and the calcium level in the blood can be controlled and slightly increases constantly, despite treatment.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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