Hyperkalemia - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments


1. Symptoms of hyperkalemia

2. Causes

3. Treatment of hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia - a disease of the endocrine system, characterized by an increase in the concentration of potassium in the blood plasmaand extracellular fluid.In a healthy person, such concentration does not exceed 5,5mmol / l.When this figure is growing, it begins to develop hyperkalemia.

disease is extremely dangerous because it changes during the electrical processes in the heart, breaking heart rate.Arrhythmias can lead to cardiac arrest, so even if mild hyperkalemia treatment requires urgent and intense.In addition, potassium surplus toxic.Consequently, a doctor should be treated immediately if signs of the disease.

Symptoms of hyperkalemia

Mild hyperkalemia symptoms expressed her implicitly and almost invisible.Often the disease is detected at a stage when a person in preventive medical examination pass the usual tests or do an electrocardiogram.Prior to this, he can occasionally feel the disruption o

f normal heart beat and not attach so much importance failures.

With the development of the disease are the main symptoms of hyperkalemia:

  • sudden vomiting;
  • cramps in the stomach;
  • Diarrhea;
  • Arrhythmia;
  • rare urination with a decrease in amount of urine;
  • Frequent stupefaction;
  • weakness, fatigue;
  • Muscle twitching;
  • Violation sensitivity and tingling in the hands, feet, lips.

Sometimes a symptom of hyperkalemia may be ascending paralysis spreads to the respiratory system.Such manifestations of the disease explains the poisoning of the body with toxins formed due to the excess of potassium in the blood plasma.Such a state, especially in diseases of the kidneys, it is dangerous because at any moment can lead to death of the patient.


disease hyperkalemia main reason - the inability of the kidneys to excrete the required amount of potassium.Its surplus goes into the extracellular sector and causes a toxic reaction and interruptions in the heart activity.

most common internal causes of hyperkalemia are:

  • Kidney disease;
  • Diabetes;
  • obstruction of the urinary channel;
  • Addison's disease.

Big risk of severe disease occurs in patients with renal insufficiency, if a person consumes foods that contain a lot of potassium.The cause hyperkalemia in severe injury can become with extensive destruction of the muscle tissue, severe burns, drug overdose.In the event of such situations potassium in the blood is ejected at high speed, and the kidneys do not have time to print it.As a result of rapidly developing hyperkalemia, which carries a considerable threat to life.

most common cause of hyperkalemia in an easy step - acceptance blocking potassium excretion of drugs.These include trimethoprim, pentamidine, spironolactone, ACE inhibitors, and others.

Treatment of hyperkalemia depends on the extent of the disease and contributing to its occurrence reasons.

Treatment of hyperkalemia

Methods of treatment of hyperkalemia is selected, focusing on its severity and on the origins of the disease.In the case where the content of potassium in the blood plasma than 6 mmol / l and the risk of heart failure, it is required to lower it immediately to a safe level.For this patient intravenously protects heart chloride or calcium gluconate solution which action should commence within five minutes.If the effect of such a time interval does not occur, and ECG shows no positive change, chloride or calcium gluconate dose repeated.The drugs lasts about three hours.At the end of this period, the calcium solution is injected to the patient again.

the treatment of severe hyperkalemia in individuals with renal dysfunction is necessary as excess potassium from the body as soon as possible to remove.For this purpose, hemofiltration or hemodialysis solution without potassium.They are used when it is impossible to eliminate the cause of the excess potassium, and when other measures do not help.

Therapy, suspending the process of developing the disease and warning complications include intravenous glucose, insulin, salbutamol.Patients rectally or orally administered sodium polistirolsulfat (ion exchange resin) with sorbitol.If the patient's kidneys are functioning normally, to remove excess potassium in the urine applied Furosemide.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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