29 April

Hyperglycemia - causes, symptoms, treatments

Contents:

1. Species

2. Causes of hyperglycemia

3. Symptoms

4. Help with hyperglycemia

5. treatment of hyperglycemia

The normal serum glucose level of a healthy person's blood is 3,3-5,5 mmol / l.When tests show glucose above the physiological norm, the clinical symptom is called hyperglycemia.The term is formed from three Greek words meaning - over, sweet and blood.Hyperglycemia is characteristic of various diseases of the endocrine system, but most of all - for diabetes.

Species

Hyperglycemia can be mild, moderate and severe.The mild form of sugar is 6-10 mmol / l, with the average - 10-16 mmol / l, in severe cases - more than 16 mmol / l.When the level of glucose rises above 16.5 mmol / L, predkomatoznoe develops a condition of 55.5 mmol / l hyperosmolar coma occurs.

Diabetic patients observed two forms of the syndrome - hyperglycemia postprandial and fasting.In the first case, sugar level rises after a meal and can exceed 10 mmol / l.In the second case, the sugar level

is increased to the level of 7.2 mmol / l, if the patient is not taken food about eight hours.

Causes of hyperglycemia

Changes in serum glucose levels occur under the action of the hormone insulin.When the hormone is insufficient, or when it can not properly interact with the body's cells for efficient glucose utilization, excess sugar in the blood occurs.Why is this happening?The main causes of hyperglycemia include diabetes, eating disorders, stress, and medication side effects.

Diabetes - is not just the cause of hyperglycemia.It is a disease of the endocrine system, for which chronic hyperglycemia is a method of decompensation.Until glucose levels rise after a meal, the patient's state of health only darkens fatigue.But as the disease progresses violated the processes of glucose, and then there is the fasting hyperglycemia.In addition to the hyperglycemia of diabetes symptoms include fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, tinnitus, abdominal pain, thirst, frequent urination.In the next step of developing the disease develops precoma, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, lethargy, apathy, shortness of breath, vision disorder, pain in the heart, and so on until the development of coma.

cause of hyperglycemia may be an eating disorder.This is possible with bulimia nervosa, when a person can not control the volume and quality of food eaten, and gets a lot more calories than required by the physiological norm.As a rule, the patient prefers simple and complex carbohydrates.

Another common cause of hyperglycemia - an acute stress.increased levels of sugar syndrome often develops in patients who have had a stroke or myocardial infarction.The cause of hyperglycemia may be an infection or inflammation that trigger kontrinsulinovyh endogenous hormones.They, in turn, disrupts the natural regulation of glucose.

cause of hyperglycemia can also be a side effect of drugs such as Rituximab.Increased risk of hyperglycemia as beta-blockers, thiazide diuretics, corticosteroids, protease inhibitors, antidepressants, and many other drugs.

Symptoms

There are three signs of increased blood glucose levels, which are called classic hyperglycemic triad.These symptoms of hyperglycemia are polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss.Polydipsia - the scientific name is excessive thirst and polyuria - frequent urination.

Other symptoms of hyperglycemia include fatigue and blurred vision.Patients with the lowest glucose levels complain that even the slightest cut or scrape heal with difficulty, feeling of dryness in the mouth, the skin becomes dry, irritated and itchy.Among the symptoms of hyperglycemia observed arrhythmia and lingering infections such as otitis externa or vaginal candidiasis.Standard treatment they usually lend themselves badly.With hyperglycemia can be connected and Kussmaul breathing - deep, rare and noisy, it may indicate a severe metabolic acidosis.Symptoms of hyperglycemia in acute form - ketoacidosis, impaired consciousness, dehydration, coma.

Help with hyperglycemia

At the first sign of hyperglycemia is necessary to make measurement of blood sugar levels.In insulin-dependent patients rate above 14 mmol / l is critical.Help with hyperglycemia in this case will be in the introduction of insulin and plentiful drink.Every two hours, is necessary to conduct measurement of glucose and insulin is administered as long as the index does not come back to normal.If improvement is not observed, the patient should be taken to hospital as a further manifestation of hyperglycemia fraught acidosis and respiratory failure.

When it comes to non-insulin dependent persons, assistance in hyperglycemia will be to neutralize the acidity of the body.This will help the vegetables, fruits, mineral water and baking soda solution.

If the affected skin was dry and rough to help with hyperglycemia, the patient rub with a damp towel, especially in the area of ​​the neck, forehead, wrists and in the area behind the knees.

treatment of hyperglycemia

Since elevated levels of glucose - is in most cases a symptom of other diseases, and the treatment of hyperglycemia should be directed to that caused her illness.

As a rule, the treatment of hyperglycemia requires regular measurement of blood glucose levels.Express-analysis is carried out on an empty stomach and after eating several times a day.If the critical exponents are seen repeatedly, hyperglycemia can lead to complications, and requires medical supervision.

For the treatment of diabetic hyperglycemia origin is usually administered insulin injection.It allows to reduce the rate of sugar in the blood serum.

Further treatment of hyperglycemia requires prescribing diet, as well as control of caloric content of products and the amount of carbohydrates eaten.Reduce the concentration of glucose in blood will use pure drinking water as well as exercise.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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