Gingivitis - forms of the disease , symptoms, treatment


1. Causes

2. catarrhal gingivitis

3. Ulcerative Gingivitis

4. Hypertrophic gingivitis

5. Treatment of gingivitis

The disease is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gums.

Currently, there are three forms: catarrhal gingivitis, hypertrophic gingivitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

gingivitis occurs most often in teenagers and pregnant women.During this period, the disease is particularly serious because the body's hormonal changes.

This article will talk about the causes and symptoms of gingivitis, treatment of gingivitis in children and adults, as well as on the different types of the disease - necrotizing gingivitis and catarrhal and ulcerative types.


There is a conventional division of the causes of gingivitis on the internal and external.

Internal reasons:

- growth of teeth (the disease develops when injury of the gums growing teeth);

- vitamin deficiency;

- gastrointestinal diseases (gastrointestinal tract);

- lowered immunity.

External causes:

- injury;

- burns;

- the impact of aggressive chemicals;

- infection.

most common causes of gingivitis is plaque, smoking, food debris and wrong Seals.

Children gingivitis occurs most often in the absence of proper hygiene.This is due to the fact that the immune protection of the child is formed by up to 7 years.Also quite common gingivitis in children with caries, rheumatism, diseases of the liver / gall bladder and tuberculosis.

catarrhal gingivitis

This form is the most common, in this case, the inflammation of the gums caused by both external and internal factors.Acute catarrhal gingivitis in children is more common than in adults.

Symptoms of gingivitis catarrhal form:

- redness, swelling and easy bleeding gums;

- papilla changes from acute to the dome;

- unpleasant odor / taste in the mouth;

- a feeling of itching and discomfort (when pressed during a meal) in the gums;

- fever;

- malaise of the body;

- fatigue.

At the initial stage of development of a copious catarrhal gingivitis plaque on the teeth, having microbial in nature.With delayed treatment after 2 - 3 weeks of the initial inflammation goes into a stable stage.

When catarrhal gingivitis affects only mild gingival papillae, the average degree of spread of the disease is characterized by the free portion of the gums.In severe primary symptom of gingivitis is engulfing the entire gingival inflammation.

Species catarrhal gingivitis:

- localized (disease covers the mucous membrane of the gums 1 - 2 teeth);

- Generalized (disease covers most of the teeth of both jaws);

- acute (non-recurring inflammation, which is limited to the time).

Delays in treatment of gingivitis can lead to the development of more complex forms and periodontitis (inflammatory disease of the teeth that can lead to hair loss).

Ulcerative Gingivitis

This form is characterized by destructive changes in the background of inflammation of the mucous membranes of the gums.It can be called necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, because in this case there is necrosis of the tissues adjacent to the gingival margin.In addition, there is an increase in regional lymph nodes, which palpation is painful.

necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis may occur primarily or be a complication of previous forms.The reasons for its development can serve as the overall resistance of the organism, infectious diseases, hypothermia and nervous breakdowns.The development of ulcerative gingivitis most often occurs in poor oral hygiene.

most acute symptoms of this form of gingivitis observed in the first 10 - 20 days, then the disease can become chronic.In addition to the common symptoms of gingivitis, this form is characterized by dirty gray coating on the tops of the gingival papillae, which after removal of the gums begin to bleed.

temperature rise at necrotizing gingivitis is accompanied by a sallow / pale complexion, rapid pulse, loss of appetite and general malaise.

For proper diagnosis specialists perform complete blood count and bacteriological testing for the presence of blood diseases such as leukemia or agranulocytosis (complete / partial removal of blood granulocytes).

Timely diagnosis and treatment of gingivitis of this type lead to a favorable outcome (perhaps a full recovery).

Hypertrophic gingivitis

difference between this form of the previous is reactive sprouting of fibrous connective tissue and basal epithelial cells on the background of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gums.

The most common hypertrophic gingivitis in children and adolescents.Despite the fact that its development is slow, the total duration of the disease has a continuous nature.

The primary cause of this form of gingivitis is a disruption of the normal functioning of the endocrine system (the sex and thyroid glands).Unconditional role in the appearance of hypertrophic gingivitis plays a violation of the vitamin in the body balance and metabolic disorders.When diagnosing a symptom gingivitis observed as thickening of the epithelium, which can lead to future keratinization.

Depending on the symptoms of gingivitis hypertrophic forms are distinguished for granulating and fibrous.When granulating throughout has been a significant increase in the size of the gums, which becomes dark red color.Fibrous flow is characterized by an increased density of the gums and painful sensations when touched.

Treatment of gingivitis

in the treatment of gingivitis, there are several basic steps:

1. Removal of deposits on the teeth.

This stage is considered the most important because it is soft and hard deposits often are the cause of gingivitis, because they consist of pathogenic microorganisms.Removing dental plaque made by dentists using ultrasound, folk remedies in this case does not apply.After this procedure, it is mandatory to carry out polishing of the teeth, as a rough surface to a rapid build-up of plaque.In that case, if the gums are inflamed or bleeding heavily, polishing is recommended that after a while.

2. Anti-inflammatory therapy.

For the anti-inflammatory treatment of gingivitis apply antiseptic solutions (rinsing of the syringe), applications and therapeutic periodontal dressing.At home, too, can be done rinsing baths and basins.

When catarrhal gingivitis is assigned to 10-d-old course of anti-inflammatory therapy in the home, as this form of the disease usually is superficial.It can be a mouth rinse procedure 0.05% chlorhexidine solution or application Holisal-gel.

3. Remediation of the oral cavity.

To remove the effects of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is recommended to treat all carious teeth, it will significantly reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease.

4. Oral hygiene.

To gingivitis treatment is successful, it is necessary to normalize the oral hygiene, it is not only the key to a cure, but also helps to prevent new outbreaks.

recommended to take Ascorutin, infusion of rose hips and ascorbic acid (0.5 grams up to 4 times a day) To increase the body's resistance with catarrhal, hypertrophic, and necrotizing gingivitis.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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