Hydronephrosis - degree , symptoms , treatments


1. Symptoms of hydronephrosis

2. degrees of hydronephrosis

3. Causes of hydronephrosis

4. hydronephrosis in children

5. Treatment of hydronephrosis

hydronephrosis - a kidney disease in which the characteristic of the progressive expansion of the renal pelvis system associated with the violation of the outflow of urine, atrophy of the parenchyma, high hydrostatic pressure in the renal pelvis system and progressive deterioration of kidney function.

Typically, the disease is more common in women aged 25-35 years;in this case affected only one kidney.Hydronephrosis occurs in children and, increasingly in recent years.

Symptoms of hydronephrosis

disease develops, usually without any symptoms and may manifest itself in trauma, infection, or may be accidentally discovered by palpation of the abdomen.

typically only for hydronephrosis symptoms are not present.Most often there is pain of varying intensity in the lumbar region, aching nature, is constantly present in the

early stages is similar to the attacks of colic.Pain can occur both day and night, regardless of the patient's body position.Seizures accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloating, and increased blood pressure.Patients may note decreased urine volume before the emergence of attacks and during them, and its increase after the attack.In the later stages of acute pain occurs.The temperature at the time of seizure is increased only when the infected hydronephrosis.

With a large hydronephrosis in the upper quadrant palpable tumor formation.This is an important symptom of the disease.

Sometimes the only symptom is hematuria, hydronephrosis, observed at the beginning of the disease.

degrees of hydronephrosis

distinguish several degrees of this disease.

1 degree of hydronephrosis.Early stage.Urine is collected in a cup and the renal pelvis, in which fluid pressure is increasing and they are stretched.Because the pelvis and the cup wall is quite flexible, in that for a certain time even kidney can cope with increased pressure.

2 degree of hydronephrosis.The increased fluid pressure results in that the pelvis and the cup stretched istonshayutsya renal tissue wall, changing its structure and naturally operability.In 20-40% of the kidney loses its functionality.

3 degree of hydronephrosis.Kidney tissue atrophy by 60-100%, and the cups and pelvis are increased in size by almost 2 times.

4 degree of hydronephrosis.The kidney stops functioning.

Causes of hydronephrosis

disease can be acquired and congenital.

Reasons acquired hydronephrosis act:

traumatic narrowing of the urinary tract,


inflammatory changes in the urinary system,

prostate tumors,

tumors of the urinary tract, cervical,

tumor metastasis in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes,

malignant infiltration of pelvic fat and retroperitoneal fat,

various traumatic and other damage to the spinal cord, which leads to a violation of the outflow of urine.

congenital hydronephrosis occurs due distenezii urinary tract;congenital anomalies of the renal artery location, which squeezes the ureter;retrokavalnogo ureter location;valves and congenital ureteral strictures;congenital obstruction of the lower urinary tract, ureterocele.

hydronephrosis in children

hydronephrosis in children, as a rule, is innate.Slowing the flow of urine leading to its accumulation in the cups and pelvis and increase the pressure in them.The walls of the cups and the pelvis, to counteract the pressure rising appear more elastic fibers.At a certain time the situation will stabilize.And if the cause is eliminated, which inhibits the flow of urine, for example, there is full development of the lumen of the ureter, it passes hydronephrosis in children.

hydronephrosis in infants accompanied by the appearance of blood in the urine, urinary infections, and abdominal pain.If the kidney is greatly increased, the parents themselves may palpate it as a rounded education in the abdomen baby.Extended pelvis during neonatal hydronephrosis easily determined by ultrasound.This is the first study that need to pass under suspicion of hydronephrosis.Next, the doctor prescribes a more in-depth survey to establish the extent of the disease and the condition of the kidney function.As a rule, this study performed with contrast agents or radioisotopes.hydronephrosis infants diagnosed within the first three - four weeks not intended, since during this period the infant strong changes occur kidney structure and water-salt balance, so hydronephrosis symptoms in newborns can spontaneously disappear.

Treatment of hydronephrosis

Treatment of this disease is to remove the reasons that caused the development of hydronephrosis and, if necessary, and to a decrease in renal pelvis and preservation.

Conservative treatment of hydronephrosis are not effective and are used in inflammation of the kidney, to lower blood pressure, ease pain and relieve symptoms of kidney failure.

organ reconstructive surgery are the most common among the operational methods.Such methods are quite a few, and the volume and type of procedure depends on the disease causing hydronephrosis.

Plastic operations shown in the degree of hydronephrosis, when parenchyma function is preserved and the cause of the disease can be eliminated.When kidney function is lost and almost saving the kidney because of possible dangerous complications, have resorted to removing the kidneys.This operation is most often performed in older patients.

Treatment of hydronephrosis in children is also dependent on the degree of hydronephrosis.If the manifestation of the disease or have been saved, but mild, until the child reaches the age of three years it should observe pediatric urologist.If there is a drastic violation of the outflow of urine, the child selects most suitable surgical treatment of him.After the operation the kidney function is restored partially or completely, the observation and treatment of hydronephrosis continue.

uninfected kidney easier to conservative treatment of physiotherapy and medication and methods.Thus it is possible to achieve full recovery of renal parenchyma.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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