Gestational diabetes - symptoms, treatment


1. risk factors for diabetes mellitus pregnant

2. Symptoms of gestational diabetes

3. diagnosis of GDM

4. Diet for gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is hyperglycemia, which refers to the categories of diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance, which arose during pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes during pregnancy has as its basis the cause hypersensitivity woman the body's cells to insulin.

Basically this form of diabetes occurs in 3-5% of cases after 4 months of pregnancy.It can develop even in those women who had not complained of elevated blood glucose.

Usually, the symptoms of gestational diabetes disappears after birth.But in some cases it may be decompensation diabetes first type that existed just before pregnancy or undiagnosed diabetes type.If at the first pregnancy in a patient diagnosed of GDM, there is a high probability (about 60%) that the disease may develop during subsequent pregnancies.

diabetes risk factors of pregnant

There are certain risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing gestational diabetes during pregnancy.These include:

  • overweight was observed in women before pregnancy;
  • high levels of sugar in the urine;
  • genetic factor, in which the risk is increased by approximately 1.5 times;
  • violation of tolerance to glucose of pregnant women;
  • age of the pregnant women older than 40 years;
  • the birth of their first child weighing more than 4 kg;
  • various viral infections that trigger the development of autoimmune processes;
  • unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, lack of exercise, poor diet, alcohol abuse and others.);
  • nationality.Oddly enough, there are some ethnic groups in which the disease is much more common than others.These include representatives of blacks, Hispanics, Asians and Native Americans.

Symptoms of gestational diabetes

Symptoms of gestational diabetes specialists include:

  • increased urination (polyuria);
  • dry mouth, increased thirst, eating large (above 2 liters) quantities of fluid per day;
  • itching in the genital area;
  • decreased activity, weakness;
  • change in appetite, weight loss.

The disease is a threat for both the pregnant woman and the fetus.Therefore, detection of GDM is a reason to change their habits, diet and lifestyle.

serious complications of gestational diabetes include:

  • polyhydramnios;
  • risk of missed abortion;
  • disruption of the organs of vision;
  • impaired renal function.

In this form of diabetes there is a risk of such severe complications like preeclampsia pregnancy, which is characterized by very serious consequences for both mother and child.

The disease can adversely affect fetal development.In the case of its occurrence in early pregnancy significantly increases the risk of congenital malformations in the baby.This affected the most important organs of the baby - the heart and brain.Also, when GDM is a risk of miscarriage.

If diabetes emerged in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, it can lead to the development of the fetus hyperinsulinemia (high insulin).The consequence of hyperinsulinemia in a child could be his big weight and obstructed labor (asphyxia or other respiratory disorders newborn features).

If time does not detect and begin treatment of hyperinsulinemia, it can cause the development of diabetic fetopathy.

signs of diabetic fetopathy newborn are:

  • weight more than 4 kg;
  • jaundice;
  • violation of body proportions;
  • respiratory disorders;
  • swelling of tissues;
  • neonatal hypoglycemia, low levels of calcium and magnesium in the blood of the child, the risk of blood clots.

diagnosis of GDM

Diagnosis of gestational diabetes requires blood glucose analysis, and conducting oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

GTT are two types depending on the method of administration of glucose: oral and intravenous.During the test, an oral glucose tolerance organism offer the patient to drink sweetened liquid which contains 50 g.Sahara.And after 20 minutes of her taking venous blood for analysis of the content of glucose in it.If the sugar level is higher than in 140mg / dl (7,7mmol / L) will need to pass more and intravenous glucose tolerance test.

certain conditions must be observed in this study.In - First, the subjects for 3-5 days before the test must adhere to the usual exercise and observe a normal diet, and the carbohydrate content should be more than 150 grams per day.Second, the sample is performed in the morning after overnight fasting for 10-14 hours (it is important not smoke or drink alcohol).B - Third, during the study the patient should be in a calm state.

Diet for gestational diabetes.

If pregnancy is detected diabetes, then it is necessary to reconsider their lifestyle and diet.

Usually, diabetes is recommended to reduce body weight, but the pregnancy starve in any case it is impossible, because the fetus should receive all the necessary nutrients.Therefore diet for gestational diabetes suggests a decrease in caloric intake, not its nutritional value.

nutritional advice for pregnant women simple and focused on the fact that the expectant mother is getting all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals, is not allowed to raise their blood sugar levels.

very important to take food in small portions 3 times a day and still make snacks (2-3) in one and the same time.It is desirable that breakfast consisted of 40-45% from carbohydrates, and dinner is also included them, but to a lesser extent (15-30 gr.).It is very important to drink at least 1.5 liters of fluid a day.

In addition, diet for gestational diabetes recommends avoiding fatty and fried, as well as those foods that are rich in carbohydrate (confectionery, baking, sweet fruits and berries).It is forbidden to eat animal fats, fatty meats and fast food, because they significantly influence the improvement of the glycemic index.

longer necessary to eat foods rich in fiber: cereals, pasta, fruit, vegetables, bread from whole grains.Fiber is very useful for diabetics, because it stimulates the bowels and slows the absorption of excessive fat and sugar in the blood.

In addition, pregnant women can keep diabetes under control with the help of regular moderate physical activity.

If diet therapy and exercise do not provide the desired result, and blood sugar remains at a high level, pregnant prescribe medications (insulin).


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

make an appointment to see a doctor

Latest Blog Post

Epilepsy - causes, symptoms , seizures , treatment
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Causes of epilepsy 2. Symptoms of epilepsy 3. features of the disease in children 4. Treatment of diseases ...

Epididymitis - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Causes 2. Acute epididymitis 3. Chronic epididymitis epididymitis - a disease that is caused by inflammation of...

Athlete - types , shapes , symptoms, treatments
August 12, 2017

Contents: 1. Types and causes of the disease 2. Symptoms and treatment of jock itch 3. Symptoms and treatment of athlete's foot ...