27 April

Gastroenteritis - Causes, Symptoms , Treatments

Contents:

1. Causes

2. Symptoms of gastroenteritis

3. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis - a disease in which inflammation develops in the stomachand small intestine.The disease usually develops as a result of penetration of the stomach and intestines of human pathogens, food toxins which cause diarrhea and vomiting.

The article focuses on the causes of diseases, especially the flow of gastroenteritis in children and acute gastroenteritis, symptoms of disease, modern methods of its diagnostics, as well as the methods used for the treatment of gastroenteritis.

Causes

causative agent of gastroenteritis is most often one of the two types of pathogens - virus or rotavirus Norfolk.This rotavirus in most cases it is the cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and Norfolk virus causes gastroenteritis in adults and older children.

Depending on the cause of the disease are following its forms:

- bacterial gastroenteritis - caused by Salmonella, Proteus, Stap

hylococcus, Shigella, E. coli and several other bacteria;

- viral species - the cause of the disease is a Norovirus or rotavirus infection;

- parasitic species - is caused by infection with parasites, falling within the human diet.

Experts distinguish between acute and chronic gastroenteritis.

primary cause of acute gastroenteritis is the consumption of low-quality food.The disease contributes to change of cell fusion (creation) enzymes that regulate the digestive function of the gastrointestinal tract.This leads to disruption of metabolic processes in the human body.

Chronic gastroenteritis may be influenced by many factors:

  • poor diet, the prevalence in the diet of spicy foods and hot spices;
  • abuse of alcohol, especially of poor quality;
  • allergic to certain foods;
  • household intoxication, work in hazardous working conditions;
  • parasitic infestations of different origin.

gastroenteritis in young children usually appears when administered in the diet of new products or in the case where a nursing mother dramatically changes the habitual diet.Older kids can get sick as a result of the development of dysbiosis, ingestion of rotavirus infections, or giardiasis.

often the source of infection of young children gastroenteritis is an adult, the virus carrier.

Symptoms of gastroenteritis

Acute gastroenteritis is pronounced symptoms.The initial symptoms of gastroenteritis is a sharp pain in the abdomen, which is accompanied by rumbling.After that the patient has nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.He feels weakness, malaise.It appears fever, body temperature can rise to 39ºS.Such gastroenteritis symptoms are accompanied by cold sweats, general signs of intoxication, vascular collapse.The patient has loose stools watery consistency with flakes and herbs.When certain types of intestinal infections stool contains mucus and blood.A symptom of gastroenteritis is that palpation of the epigastric region of the abdomen is painful enough, but the cecum region palpation causes a strong rumbling.

In acute gastroenteritis symptoms, complicating the disease, may become dehydrated.He developed dizziness, weakness, decreased sweating, infrequent urination, dry skin and mucous membranes.Such a condition can have very serious consequences for the person.

Symptoms of gastroenteritis in children are the same as in adults, but more pronounced.First, there is a pain in the navel area, which spreads rapidly around the tummy.Then there are the rest of the baby gastroenteritis symptoms - nausea, vomiting, loose stools, a significant increase in overall body temperature, weakness and lethargy.

chronic form of the disease is manifested by frequent pain or blunt spastic character.Even with the small errors of food a patient can be diarrhea, nausea.

Diagnosis and treatment of gastroenteritis

Diagnosing gastroenteritis is based on the definition of clinical symptoms and laboratory research methods.

On examination, the patient's doctor draws attention to the following diagnostic features of the disease:

  • sufficiently severe intestinal peristalsis;
  • muscle weakness of the patient;
  • presence of white patches on the tongue;
  • swelling of the mucous membrane of the pharynx;
  • muted tones of the heart;
  • low-grade body temperature.

In severe cases of acute gastroenteritis patient pronounced signs of dehydration.

By laboratory methods of diagnosis include blood and faeces to identify the causative agent.

Treatment of acute gastroenteritis form is carried out in stationary conditions.In the case of suspicion of an infectious cause of the patient is placed in the infectious department of the hospital.

To remove toxins from the body, treatment of gastroenteritis starts with a probe or tubeless gastric lavage with a solution of sodium bicarbonate.Also, the patient is prescribed inside laxative.The patient must observe fasting for several days and a lot to drink (boiled water, unsweetened tea).If the patient are observed symptoms of intoxication of the organism, it is prescribed kordiamin, sulfokamfokain, 5% glucose solution or isotonic sodium chloride solution.

enzymatic means (abomin, Festal) is used to normalize the gastrointestinal tract function.Later they added drugs that restore the gastro-intestinal flora - enteroseptol, intestopan.Of great importance in the treatment of gastroenteritis is patient compliance with a special diet.On the second day of the treatment of the disease the patient can take in food crackers, low-fat broth, pureed oatmeal, boiled in water.

Treatment of chronic gastroenteritis in the period of exacerbation is carried out in a hospital environment.The treatment of this disease usually prescribe drugs that normalize the microflora of the stomach and intestines, vitamin complexes.When diarrhea is applied overlying and astringents.The treatment of this form of gastroenteritis is well complemented by physiotherapy methods (ozokerite, paraffin baths, diathermy), hot compress.The diet of the patient should contain the right amount of protein and easily digestible fats.It is necessary to restrict the foods rich in fiber, fats exclude refractory.Food should be consumed in the form of heat, 5-6 times a day in small portions.

treatment of gastroenteritis in children conducted by a doctor.Kids more vulnerable to complications of the disease than adults.Especially dangerous is the emergence of the child's dehydration.To avoid it, you need to drink every 10-15 minutes the baby with special solutions - tsitroglyukosolanom, rehydron.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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