Sinusitis - types , signs , symptoms and treatment


1. Types sinusitis

2. Diagnostics

3. Causes of sinusitis

4. Symptoms of sinusitis

5. Treating sinusitis

6. Complications

called sinusitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the intracranial sinuses.It occurs due to infection, injury or reaction to the allergen.As a result, slime does not leave the sinuses naturally and stagnates.Meets sinusitis in children and adults.It occupies the first place among all diseases of upper respiratory tract.


sinusitis Sinusitis can be acute or chronic.In acute inflammation develops in the mucosa, as well as lying beneath loose tissue and blood vessels.In chronic sinus inflamed sinus bone wall and submucosa.

Depending on the origin, sinusitis is divided into infectious, allergic and vasomotor.

The disease is classified according to the method and the penetration of infectious agents: hematogenous (through the blood), rhinogenous (from the nose), odontogenic (inflammation of the teeth) and traumatic.

Localization sinusitis is one-sided and two-sided (or the presence of inflammation in a maxillary sinus, or both).


presence defines sinusitis ENT doctor after examination he inserts into the patient's nose dilator and inspects each nostril.However, a definitive diagnosis can be made after the X-ray.The patient takes a picture, and if the area between the upper jaw and the eyes will be white - it means he has sinusitis.

Causes of sinusitis

Sinusitis develops due to blockage of the outlet opening of the maxillary sinus, and this, in turn, causes inflammation of the sinuses and the accumulation of pus in it.

main causes of acute sinusitis are infections (ARI, influenza, measles, etc.), The spread of infection from the affected teeth, impaired immunity, allergy and regular hypothermia.

chronic form of the disease develops in the presence of untreated acute sinusitis, and is a long purulent inflammation of the maxillary sinuses.Other causes of this disease may be congenital abnormalities of the nasal cavity, a deviated septum, chronic foci of infection in the mouth and in the nose (chronic rhinitis, chronic pharyngitis, chronic tonsillitis, adenoids).

Symptoms of sinusitis

symptoms of sinusitis depend on the form of the disease.

signs of the acute form of sinusitis, usually superimposed on the symptoms of the flu or acute respiratory disease that trigger the mechanism of development of this disease.The initial symptoms of the disease can be called chills, malaise, fever, nasal congestion, sneezing and runny nose.Soon the described symptoms of sinusitis is added to the pain in his face, extending to the base of the nose, forehead and teeth.In some cases, redness and swelling of the eyelids.

The main symptoms of chronic sinusitis determine the dry night cough and chronic runny nose, do not respond to traditional treatments.Patients may complain of such symptoms of sinusitis, headache and pain in the back of the eye sockets.Characteristic signs of chronic sinusitis are conjunctivitis and swelling of the eyelids.

For both forms of the disease is characterized by a symptom of sinusitis, as the deterioration of the sense of smell.In addition, the sinusitis signs are purulent or mucous discharge from the nose, insomnia, loss of appetite, fatigue.

diagnose sinusitis in young children is quite difficult, since they can not explain exactly where the pain is localized, and that they are experiencing at the same time.The symptoms of acute sinusitis in children include: shortness of nasal breathing, clear or purulent discharge, swelling and redness of the affected area, a toothache in the upper jaw, which increases during chewing.Also, the signal feature of sinusitis is a "pressing" a headache "behind the eyes."The patient may increase the temperature and smell worse.Kid becomes lethargic, moody, refuses food.


sinusitis sinusitis treatment should be comprehensive and include measures to lower the temperature, the elimination of edema of the nasal mucosa vasoconstrictor and suppression of infection with the help of local antimicrobial agents and antibiotics.

When acute course of the disease when the doctor prescribes antibiotics sinusitis.The good effect is achieved by the application of the system of a new generation of antibiotics (azithromycin, augmentin, cephalosporins).In our time, often prescribed for sinus topical antibiotics (bioparoks and zofra), creating a source of infection in a high concentration of active ingredient.It is also used to treat sinusitis and older drugs - amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin.

decongestants are used to facilitate breathing.If the cause of sinusitis can be an allergic reaction, also nominated, and antiallergic agents.

addition of antibiotics for sinus doctor may suggest that the patient puncture of the maxillary sinus.This procedure does not require any special training and does not cause severe pain.The wall of the sinus is punctured with a special needle, then sucked the pus, sinus and washed with antibiotics.

the treatment of sinusitis is often practiced vacuum catheterization sinuses YAMIK-catheter.This device creates a cavity in the nose and sinuses controlled pressure.This is short-term and absolutely painless procedure that eliminates the symptoms of sinusitis, no complications and well tolerated by patients.

With signs of sinusitis do well and physiotherapy (blue ray, UHF, microwave).Thanks to these procedures can reduce the dosage and duration of antibiotic treatment, and shorten the period of illness.

If treatment is initiated in a timely manner, all the symptoms of sinusitis are held during the week.With regard to chronic sinusitis, it may require a more prolonged treatment, and in some cases - and operations.

Sinusitis in children is usually treated with conventional pharmacotherapy.Rinsing sinuses (no puncture) is carried out only in case of heavy discharge of pus or severe pain.Laser therapy helps to eliminate the effects of inflammation and strengthen the effectiveness of drug treatment.The treatment of sinusitis in children is 1-2 weeks.

Complications Complications may arise in case of failure of antibiotics for sinus or non-compliance with the treatment regimen.In this case, acute sinusitis often becomes chronic.

In addition, there are intracranial and intraorbital complications of the disease, when a sinus infection moves into the neighboring departments, damaging tissue and functionality of these sites.If you get an infection in the eye socket vein thrombosis of the orbit, the orbit osteoperiostit or tissue swelling of the orbit and eyelids.In the case of infection in the cranial cavity can develop such serious diseases such as brain abscess rhinogenous, meningoencephalitis, serous or purulent meningitis.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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