Congenital malformations - classification , reason


1. Causes of congenital malformations

2. Classification of congenital malformations

3. Congenital CNS

4. Therapies CDF

Congenital malformations (CDF) are in third place among the factors leading to death in the perinatal period.Complications caused by these defects can affect human health throughout life.There are malformations:

- easily-correctable;

- incompatible with life;

- compatible with life, but significantly complicate it.

Congenital malformations of the fetus diagnosed by ultrasound.When a woman goes through the pregnancy ultrasound examination no later than 17 weeks.If a pregnant woman is at risk, the ultrasound is performed with the utmost care.In identifying congenital fetal malformations it recommended termination of pregnancy.

CDF - a consequence of violations of fetal development.PPS is the most serious threat to the normal development of the pregnancy, which in most cases leads to child disability and mortality.

Among congenital malformations dist

inguish anencephaly (a brain underdevelopment), malformations of the nervous system, heart defects, spina bifida (external hernia of the spinal cord), limb defects, or lack thereof, maxillo-facial deformity, especially cleft palate, cleft lip andpr.

Why is this happening?

Causes of congenital malformations

Causes of congenital malformations can be very diverse.Quite often the cause of hereditary factors are, in particular, a set of chromosomal abnormalities in one or both parents.Various harmful factors such as infections (measles, chicken pox, rubella, cytomegalovirus), drug use or large doses of alcohol can also lead to defects in the fetus.

A frequent cause of congenital malformations is the lack of vitamins in the diet of pregnant women, in particular the lack of folic acid.

Naturally, the correct way of life of the pregnant woman and diet are important factors for the development of a healthy child.Conversely, the lack of vitamins is often the cause of failure in the development of mental and physical abilities of the child.

also affect the development of the fetus may be the following factors:

  • The lack of oxygen.It can lead to detachment of the placenta, placental insufficiency, heart attack and hemorrhage of the placenta, severe anemia and early abortion.
  • Influence of negative environmental factors:. X-rays, ionizing radiation, nuclear energy, etc.
  • impact of adverse chemical factors can cause fetal hypoxia and cause the formation of congenital malformations of the fetus.A particular danger comprise substances such as nicotine, mercury, contraceptives, benzene, and some drugs.
  • Mechanical factors, such as tumors of the uterus, improper location of the fetus, the implantation of the egg can cause anomalies such as spina bifida, abnormalities in neural tube development.
  • mother Injuries during pregnancy.
  • Endocrine diseases.

It should be noted that almost half of the cases of congenital malformations in the fetus their causes remain unclear.

Classification of congenital malformations

There are several groups of defects, different from each other time the influence of harmful factors and subject to destruction:

1. Gametopatii.

2. Blastopatii.

3. embryopathy.

4. fetopathy.

following classification of congenital malformations are also accepted:

1. agenesis - lack of a specific organ.

2. aplasia - hypoplasia or absence of a body.

3. Wasting - reducing the weight of the body of the fetus or infant.

4. hypoplasia - low body weight, it hypoplasia or small size.

5. hyperplasia - increase in body size or body weight.

6. heterotopias - placing tissues, cells or entire organs in the body unusual places.

7. macrosomia - manifested in gigantism.The increase in body weight and length.

8. Geteroplaziya - disruptions in the delimitation of certain types of tissue.

9. Ectopic - the displacement of one of the bodies.

10. stenosis - narrowing of the hole or the channel.

11. atresia - lack of natural orifice or channel.

12. merger or fusion of bodies.

13. Persistence - the reverse process of morphological structures.

14. Diskhroniya - acceleration or deceleration of development processes.

Also, depending on the sequence of manifestations distinguish primary (mutation) and secondary (primary consequence of) defects.

As the extent of the following classification of congenital malformations accepted:

  • isolated;
  • multiple;
  • system.

also found CDF organs, systems and multiple congenital anomalies.

Congenital CNS

For congenital malformations of the nervous system are defects of the olfactory analyzer, the final brain stem sections, spinal cord, cerebellum and spinal subarachnoid space and ventricular system.Congenital malformations of the nervous system is mainly classified according to the anatomical and physiological principle of the separation of the human body in the body system.

Congenital malformations of the nervous system:

  • agenesis of the corpus callosum;
  • anencephaly;
  • goloprozentsefaliya;
  • cephalocele;
  • hydrocephalus and ventriculomegaly;
  • cysts of the choroid plexus,
  • microcephaly;
  • spina bifida.

It is worth noting that among all types of malformations congenital malformations of the nervous system most frequently detected.Among the reasons for their occurrence can be called the mother transferred rubella viruses, herpes simplex virus, Coxsackie, HIV.Also affect the nervous system CDF can use drugs, alcohol, drugs, hypoxia and radiation energy.


PPS PPS treatment method may vary significantly with different nature and degree of severity of the defect.According to statistics, a quarter of children die from congenital malformations in the first years of life.Another 25% live with permanent mental and physical disabilities.Unfortunately, only 5% of cases there is a possibility of treatment.One hundred percent number of cases amenable to correction, are treated surgically.In some forms of birth defects, it makes sense use of conservative methods of treatment.

Certain types of malformations become apparent as the child grows, and some are asymptomatic.Excellent results are obtained by the timely prevention of congenital malformations.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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