2. Symptoms and Diagnosis
3. Treatment of intracranial hematoma
4. Consequences of intracranial hematoma
intracranial hematoma (accumulation of blood in different areas of the cranial cavity) is one of the most common effects of a head injury.However, it may occur not only in the background traumatic injury of brain vessels, but also as a result of aneurysm rupture, stroke, and various angionevroticheskih atherosclerotic disorders and may also be a complication arising due to infectious disease.
Hematoma reduces the intracranial space and compression of the brain.As a result, there is pressure on the brain edema infecting brain tissue and leading to their subsequent destruction.
Depending on the period of time during which become visible signs of intracranial hematoma, distinguish acute intracranial hematoma, the symptoms of which are evident within three days, subacute hematoma, visible at the end of 21 days from the date of formati
Depending on the size of intracranial hematomas are classified as small, having a volume of 50 ml, medium, reaching volume 50 to 100 mL, and large - over 100 ml.Also distinguish hematoma shell (epidural, located above the dura and subdural localized between brain matter and solid shell), intracerebral (located in the brain tissue), hematoma brainstem and diapedetic hematoma (result from hemorrhagic impregnation without vascular injury).
Diagnosis of the disease is often complicated by the fact that the symptoms resulting from the head injury, can significantly reverse the signs of intracranial hematoma.Clinical symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage are not immediate, but delayed after some time.This phenomenon is called "lucid interval".
Typical head injuries are characterized by changes of consciousness, which take place in three stages: first, there is a short-term loss of consciousness, followed by "lucid interval", and after him - loss of consciousness again.At the same time the symptoms of an intracranial hematoma can manifest as:
- nausea and vomiting;
- severe headache and dizziness;
- bradycardia (heart rhythm disorders);
- changes in intracranial pressure;
- anisocoria (different pupil size);
- speech impairment or loss;
- arterial hypertension (consistently elevated blood pressure);
- asymmetry of blood pressure;
- drowsiness, stupor;
- psychomotor agitation;
extensive hematoma can lead to severe seizures, coma, and in severe cases, or in the absence of timely treatment - death.But small intracranial hematoma can cause serious harm, so to diagnose the disease using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging - other ways of studies provide only indirect and very approximate figures.
In some cases, small hematoma volume can resolve yourself.However, often the treatment of intracranial hematoma requires immediate surgery.Operative treatment of intracranial hematoma depends on the characteristics of education, its size and location.Typically, accumulation of blood is removed by opening the skull cavity (via trepanation through hole and the like).
However, treatment of intracranial hematomas is not always in need of surgical intervention.For some types of hematomas it can be conservative.In such instances, the drugs that reduce the intracranial pressure, which helps dissolve hematoma.
consequences of intracranial hemorrhage often perform post-traumatic seizures.They can manifest themselves even after one year from the receipt of injury.To prevent cramps postoperative treatment of intracranial hematoma often complement anticonvulsant.
Among other consequences of intracranial hematoma - possible violations of memory, attention, headaches, anxiety state.Typically, recovery from an intracranial hematoma is a long process, and can often be incomplete.In adults, rehabilitation usually takes at least six months.Children recovering from bruises faster.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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