Intraocular pressure - symptoms measurement rate


1. Reduced and increased intraocular pressure

2. Measurement of internal eye pressure

3. Treatment of intraocular pressure

called intraocular pressure and vitreous pressureaqueous humor inside the eye capsule.Normal intraocular pressure maintains the general tone of the eye, helps to preserve its spherical shape.Raising or lowering it leads to deterioration of the visual function of the eye.Therefore, without the treatment of such conditions in humans can develop severe disease.

After 40 years it is necessary every three years to measure the intraocular pressure for the early detection of pathologies.This helps prevent the development of diseases such as glaucoma, optic atrophy and other disorders.

Reduced and increased intraocular pressure

internal eye pressure may be reduced for several reasons.The main ones are the following:

  • lowering blood pressure - leads to a decrease in pressure in the capillaries of the eyes;
  • ingress of foreign bodies in the eye or eye injur
  • inflammatory disease of the eyeball - iritis (inflammation of the iris), uveitis (inflammation of the choroid);
  • dehydration - is observed in severe inflammatory and infectious diseases;
  • retinal detachment;
  • diabetes, in which acute state of ketoacidosis;
  • hepatic coma in severe liver disease.

Symptoms of intraocular pressure in the reduced state is practically absent.The patient may notice that his eyesight gradually decreases.Sometimes the eyes become dry, lose their luster.In severe cases, it can be clearly seen retraction of the eyeballs.

If untreated, lowering internal eye pressure can lead to significant visual impairment.If there is atrophy of the eyeball, pathological disorders become irreversible.

There are three types of elevated intraocular pressure (increased ophthalmotonus).

1.Tranzitornoe - the pressure rises for a short time once, and then returns to normal.

2.Labilnoe - periodic increase of pressure, which is then returned to normal.

3.Stabilnoe - pressure is continually elevated, often pathological process progresses.

usually transient increased intraocular pressure is at eye fatigue, hypertension.In humans, increased pressure in the arteries, veins and capillaries of the eyeball.Often it increases intracranial pressure.Sometimes the inner eye pressure increases during stress, the manifestation of violent emotions.

Some disorders of the nervous system and the hormonal levels also contribute to the increase in intraocular pressure, which may progress to glaucoma over time.

Increased ophthalmotonus can be caused by water retention in certain diseases of the kidneys, heart failure.In addition, its cause are Graves' disease (diffuse toxic goiter), hypothyroidism (thyroid disease), menopause in women, poisoning some drugs, chemicals, processes tumor and inflammatory eye disease, eye injury.

All of the above reasons contribute to the periodic occurrence of elevated intraocular pressure.If the disease is quite long, it can contribute to the development of glaucoma.

Symptoms of intraocular pressure with a slight increase is often absent.Most people in this state there are non-specific symptoms, most often the following:

  • eye pain;
  • headaches, usually in the temple;
  • increased eye fatigue;
  • discomfort when reading texts with small print in low light, while working at the computer.

This is relatively rare as a symptom of elevated intraocular pressure in a position to meet impaired vision.

Complications of high internal eye pressure enough heavy - glaucoma, optic atrophy, retinal detachment.These pathologies can lead to significant loss of vision and blindness.

Measurement of internal eye pressure

intraocular pressure measurement is carried out by means of special devices - tonometer of Maklakov, pneumotonometry, elektrotonografii.

Most often, doctors use Maklakova method.No special training before performing this procedure is not required.If the patient wears the lens, it will be necessary to remove them.

Before the procedure, the doctor spends anesthesia eye.To do this, a patient eye at intervals of twice a minute droplets dripping anesthetic tetracaine.The patient then lies down on the couch, he fixed his head and asked to look at one point.establish a small painted ship on the eye.No pain, this procedure does not cause.

Under the weight of the load eyes slightly deformed.The degree of deformation depends on the magnitude of the intraocular pressure.Some of the paint remains on the patient's eye and then washed off the tear fluid.

This procedure should be followed twice with each eye.Then, on a sheet of paper make the paint mark that remained on the load.According to the color intensity and determining the necessary indicators.Normal intraocular pressure as measured Maklakova tonometer is less than 24 mm Hg.Art.

pressure measurements inside the eye is sometimes carried out with the help of pneumotonometry.With such a diagnosis rate of intraocular pressure of 15-16 mm Hg.Art.Typically, this value limit of normal are determined by the device that is used.

There is another method for measuring intraocular pressure - elektrotonografiya.This increase in pressure is determined by the increased production of the intraocular fluid and the outflow of the accelerated fluid.

Treatment of intraocular pressure

under reduced pressure inside the eye therapy is to treat the underlying disease that led to this state.

Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in a state can be conservative and surgical.When conservative therapy the patient is prescribed drops that improve eye nutrition and fluid outflow from their tissues.The dose, duration of the course of treatment drugs the doctor selects individually for each patient.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment of intraocular pressure resorted to laser surgery.Experts carried out one of the two types of surgery - excision of the iris using special equipment or laser tensile trabeculae.As a result of these transactions improves the output of excess fluid from the eyeball and is gradually getting back to normal internal eye pressure.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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