2. Symptoms of varicocele
3. degrees of disease severity
4. Treatment of varicocele
varicocele is a varicosevaricose veins in the spermatic cord, which form acinar (pampiniform) plexus scrotum.The term "varicocele" is derived from the fusion of the Latin word varix - expansion and Greek kele - tumor.
The disease is fairly common pathology of the male reproductive system and is found in about 15% of men.Most often varicose veins in the spermatic cord diagnosed in teenage boys aged 12-15 years, in the period of intensive growth.In a study of men of all ages suffering from infertility, a varicocele is found in 40% of cases.
disease develops due to increased pressure in the veins in the spermatic cord, which is most often due to the peculiarities of the anatomical location of the veins.At the same time more frequent cases of varicocele on the left side, because of the peculiarities of the course of the left testicular vein.
This may be due to one facto
- due to renal hypertension occurs venous shunt in its collaterals, one of which is left testieular Vienna;
- valvular insufficiency testicular vein.
listed pathogenetic factors leading to venous reflux, increased venous pressure, the expansion of the testicular veins and venous stasis in the scrotum.There are also external factors that contribute to the development of the disease.Among them are long-term physical activity of high intensity, diseases accompanied by an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, thrombosis or compression of the renal vein.
Approximately half of the cases the disease is asymptomatic.However, the symptoms include varicocele drawing pain in the scrotum or in one or both testicles, in the course of which the spermatic cord is transmitted to the lumbar region.The pain is worse when walking, physical exertion during sexual intercourse.In addition, the symptoms of varicocele are wasting or atrophy of the testes, scrotal hematoma or omission.
One possible symptom is infertility varicocele, but the disruption of spermatogenesis does not occur in all patients suffering from this disease.There are many factors that negatively affect semen parameters in men suffering from varicose veins in the spermatic cord.The process of formation and maturation of sperm cells in this disease progressively worsens over time.That is, the original sperm satisfactory performance may gradually decline.However, even if one-sided varicocele symptoms are usually broken functionality of both testicles.
However, the significant correlation between the degree of varicose veins and the changes for the worse sperm quality the side not revealed.In general, the disease leads to deterioration of semen, reduced volume and reduced production of testicular hormones testes but does not preclude the possibility of paternity.
disease includes 4 degrees:
- I degree of varicocele: testicular varicose veins are not visible and not palpable hands.Increased pampiniform plexus can be detected only during the Valsalva maneuver or instrumental methods (ultrasound, Doppler);
- II degree of varicocele: testicular veins visible to the naked eye only in the standing position.At the touch is detected an increase in venous plexus, but the size of the testicle and its functioning are not changed;
- III degree of varicocele appears visible increase pampiniform plexus in the position and standing, and lying down;
- IV degree of varicocele: a distinct veins testicle and spermatic cord, soft egg, its dimensions are reduced.
completely cure varicocele today possible only through surgery.In modern medicine, there are no sufficiently effective methods of getting rid of varicocele without surgery.
For operation with varicocele resort, if the disease is accompanied by pain and infertility.In this surgical treatment leads to improved spermatogenesis after varicocele only when the disease has passed from the time of not more than 5 years.Surgery for the treatment of varicocele is practiced only in the presence of clear indications, otherwise it is not necessary.
Today we know of about 120 methods of surgical treatment of varicocele.The most common method is ligation of vessels eggs at different levels.It uses a magnifying optics and microsurgical technique.
Research effectiveness of surgical treatment show that after varicocele, within two years after surgery, 70% of patients improved sperm quality.Of the 986 patients observed after varicocele in 53% of men have become pregnant wife.Moreover, among patients who refused surgery, only about 10-16% of men were able to become fathers.
In some cases, surgery for varicocele may be accompanied by complications.The most frequently observed relapse is also possible hydrocele (hydrocele).In general, thanks to the improvement of surgical techniques, this kind of complications are rare, and the percentage of their occurrence after varicocele decreases.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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