1. As the disease spreads
2. Symptoms of typhoid
4. Treatment and prevention of typhoid
Typhoidfever - this is one of the most dangerous diseases in the world, which annually carries hundreds of thousands of lives.Today, it is common in countries with dysfunctional water supply and sanitation - outbreaks are found in South America, Africa and Asia.The disease most often affects adolescents and adults, showing greater activity in the summer-autumn season.A major role in the eradication of the disease play such measures of prevention of typhoid fever as the provision of adequate sanitation and improved living standards.
causative agent of typhoid fever is Salmonella typhi - the mobile Gram-negative and extremely viable bacillus that produces endotoxin, which is dangerous for humans only.For example, the causative agent of typhoid die only at high temperature, such as reflux.When heated to 60 ° C is able to stick to hold 30 minutes,
in humans Salmonella typhi gets from food, water or milk.The only reservoir of the causative agent of typhoid fever is a human.Salmonella typhi patient excreted in feces, and then to food bacilli carrier may be flies and other insects.In the acute stage of the disease, they are excreted in the sputum, vomit and other bodily fluids.Due to the fact that stick well to survive in the cold, undergoing drying and feels great in the wastewater, fever can quickly take epidemic proportions.Outbreaks of the disease occur mostly in unsanitary conditions with inadequate chlorination of water, waste water, or delay during floods and other natural disasters.
The incubation period of the disease is an average of 2 weeks.The causative agent of typhoid fever enters the body by ingestion.After some time the stick enters the small intestine, and begins to proliferate.Then, it is found on the mucous membrane, through the Peyer's patches in the lymphatic vessels falls and it - into the bloodstream.Initially there are no symptoms of typhoid fever, but after bacteremia (contact sticks in the bloodstream) begin the first clinical manifestation.Part of Salmonella typhi, circulating in the blood with release of endotoxin killed.It was he who causes intoxication syndrome, which in severe cases, moves to the stage of infection toxic shock.
first symptoms of typhoid fever - a fever that lasts 4-7 days with the ever increasing signs.The patient is observed headache, fatigue, skin pallor, bradycardia, loss of appetite, the language appears white patches to appear constipation, bloating or diarrhea.
next stage - the height, it takes about 9-10 days.Patients concerned about these symptoms of typhoid fever as high fever, confusion, poisoning symptoms appear on the skin pale pink dots (roseola), which disappear when pressed and are located mainly in the skin of the abdomen, chest, bottom, sides of the body, and folds hands elbows.The cardiologist can detect tone deaf heart, bradycardia, low blood pressure.The raid on the tongue becomes brown with imprints of teeth on the edges.It appears bloating, constipation, enlargement of the liver and spleen.During this period, the possibility of abrupt retardation, impaired consciousness, the emergence of delusions and hallucinations.
next stage - the resolution of the disease.The temperature falls, disappears intoxication, weakness, appears appetite, sleep becomes a normal state of health improves, the patient recovers.But in 3-10% of cases may occur and relapse.At this point the temperature of 37-37,5 ° C, still increased the size of the liver and spleen, poor appetite, weakness, malaise.At relapse can be observed all the major symptoms of typhoid fever, but the disease will not take place already so lasting.
By severity, typhoid fever is divided into mild, moderate and severe.There are also uncharacteristic forms of the disease - fever abortive and erased.Because of the widespread use of antibiotics and immunization abortive and erased form of the disease began to dominate.
greatest danger for the patient are the complications of the disease.Without timely treatment of typhoid fever can lead to perforation of the small intestine, intestinal bleeding and infectious-toxic shock.Usually complications appear in 2-3 week disease.
for analysis of typhoid fever must pass on the bacteriological examination of samples of blood, feces, urine and bile.
most reliable method that can be used from the first days of the disease - a method of obtaining blood culture or culture from blood samples.For this analysis typhoid used 5-10 ml of blood from the cubital vein.The final result in this case becomes known after 4 days.
Analysis of typhoid to the study of feces, urine, or the contents of the duodenum lumen provides a preliminary response within hours.The final answer can be obtained in 5-20 hours.Among the methods used serological response Vidal, which is on 7-9 day of illness.
In the absence of specific symptoms, a doctor should be a differential diagnosis.This tests for typhoid fever will help to eliminate diseases such as typhus, malaria, brucellosis, pneumonia, sepsis, tuberculosis, Hodgkin's disease and other diseases, which is the main symptom of fever.
disease treatment requires hospitalization.The patient requires bed rest or bed rest, depending on complications.In addition to diet, the patient should follow certain rules - do not make any sudden movements, do not lift weights, not to push during a bowel movement.
Treatment of typhoid fever is carried out comprehensively.First of all, it takes a course of antimicrobial therapy - the patient is assigned to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and other antibiotics.In recent years began to appear pathogen strains that are resistant to some antibiotics.If the drug does not have the desired effect, it is replaced with another antimicrobial agent.
Since the main symptom of the disease - fever, typhoid treatment comprises administering steroids.Steroids allow to stop the signs of fever for a while until it was clinical improvement in the treatment of antimicrobials.
For the treatment of typhoid fever is also used by maintenance treatment, including proper hygiene and nutrition.Enemas and laxatives to patients denied due to the threat of bowel perforation.When bleeding and bowel perforation, the treatment of typhoid fever include blood transfusions.
Since every case of typhoid fever may be the source of the epidemic, play an important part of disease prevention measures.Prevention of typhoid fever include improving sanitary conditions, measures for sewage disposal, drinking water treatment and careful control of chronic carriers of the disease.
Those planning a trip to the region, where the epidemic is, it is recommended to be vaccinated.Absolute guarantee that typhoid prevention measure does not, because the immune system can be interrupted when infecting a large dose of the pathogen.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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