3. Symptoms of bronchiectasis
4. treatment of bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis - an irreversible expansion of the individualbronchi area, arising from a bronchial wall damage and proceeding with the change of the function and structure of the bronchi.
disease can be congenital or acquired.Depending on the shape and distinguish cylindrical saccular bronchiectasis.
As a result of diffuse bronchiectasis cylindrical bronchiectasis can hit large swathes of the bronchial tree, often touching his medium and small branches.Diagnosis of the disease is complicated by the fact that in such a configuration form his bronchus is almost correct.A notice changes aided by the fact that in a certain place one of the branches of the bronchus (or both branches) after division is not reduced in diameter but retains the stem diameter, from which it is formed, or even expanded.Touching light, bronchiectasis permeates them.Sometimes this process is develop
saccular bronchiectasis sections are formed with a limited lesion of any particular portion of the bronchial wall.The formed cavity may have the most diverse shape and size.The upper lobes of the lungs to form saccular bronchiectasis - is the most common site of localization.If in the course of the bronchus is a number saccular formations, we are talking about the presence of varicose bronchiectasis.
process of lung disease bronchiectasis may result in pulmonary hemorrhage or lung abscess.
disease In congenital bronchiectasis cause a failure in the formation and development of bronchopulmonary system of the fetus in utero.Congenital disease typically is a heavy malformation, consisting in that at the end bronchial branches are formed alveoli.As a result, pulmonary parenchyma lesion contains extended pneumatic tubes.Such changes may affect how individual small sections and the entire lung lobe or entirely.If you are affected both lungs, the fetus is not viable.
Congenital bronchiectasis may be combined with malformations such as the swept sky, a mirror arrangement of internal organs, cleft lip and other.
In most cases, acquired bronchiectasis causes lie in complications after suffering lung and bronchial diseases (tuberculosis, pneumonia).In addition, the cause of bronchiectasis can be:
- genetic diseases (primary ciliary dyskinesia, Kartagener syndrome, cystic fibrosis);
- immunodeficiency (primary and secondary);
- bronchial obstruction provoked by tumors, foreign bodies, vascular aneurysms, enlarged lymph nodes;
- inhalation injury;
- diffuse panbronchiolitis;
- congenital structural disorders of the respiratory tract;
- Other conditions: drug addiction, Morthal syndrome, Young's syndrome, etc.
In some cases (25-50%), the exact cause of the disease can not be established.
cause of bronchiectasis in children may be a violation of postnatal respiratory system, caused by an inflammatory process in the bronchi.Transferred in infancy and childhood (even before the bronchopulmonary system finally formed) viral pneumonia, whooping cough or measles increases the risk of bronchiectasis.
bronchial obstruction - a major cause of bronchiectasis in children.The fact that such disorders peribronchial provoke the development of multiple sclerosis, which in turn leads to the loss of bronchial wall to its elasticity.Develops persistent bronchial distortion and expansion.
Violations bronchial conductivity results in an increased mucus and pus, which is a cause of lung atelectasis with bronchiectasis.
Although the disease can manifest itself at any age, most often the process begins in childhood.Thus bronchiectasis symptoms do not appear immediately, but in some cases may not exist at all.They begin to develop, as a rule, after suffering respiratory infections, and eventually increasing its intensity.
Symptoms of bronchiectasis are quite diverse.They can hide in recurring respiratory tract infections or make themselves a daily cough with phlegm.The nature and quantity of released when coughing sputum depends on the degree of damage to bronchial tubes and the presence (or absence) of an infectious process.
symptom of bronchiectasis is a large amount released when coughing sputum - from 100 ml to 200 ml per day, although in some cases the separation can be scarce.The most severe coughing fits occur more frequently in the morning and late at night.Bronchial wall injury during cough may result in that the streaks appear in sputum or blood clots.
Sometimes the first and only symptom of bronchiectasis is blood in the sputum.
have faced with the disease over time, patients can develop shortness of breath, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthma.
In severe cases, the disease leads to heart failure.As a result, the symptoms of bronchiectasis can be swelling of feet and legs, increasing the volume of the abdomen, severe shortness of breath when lying down.
the treatment of bronchiectasis not used drugs suppress the cough, as they may worsen the patient's condition.
should be borne in mind that bronchiectasis - a chronic progressive disease.Completely get rid of it by means of conservative treatment is impossible.Therefore medication bronchiectasis purports to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.
Respiratory tract infections are treated with antibiotics.Sometimes the treatment is rather long, its main purpose becomes to prevent frequent recurrences.The patient may be prescribed mucolytics (drugs thinning mucus and pus), and corticosteroids (hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs).
Treatment of bronchiectasis in patients with heart failure, the patient goes to the appointment of diuretics to help remove the swelling.Patients with low levels of oxygen in the blood is prescribed oxygen masks, with shortness of breath and wheezing prescribed bronchodilators.
Patients must attend check-ups to the doctor every six months or once a month, depending on the severity of the disease.To assess the activity of inflammation in the bronchi must be regularly carried out a general analysis and bacteriological examination of sputum.
In rare cases, there is a need in the surgical treatment of bronchiectasis - during surgery removed a share or segment of the affected lung.Surgery is carried out if the current treatment does not reduce the frequency of infections in a patient when released by cough sputum contains a large amount of blood.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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