1. Bronchial asthma in children
3. Emergency care in asthma
Bronchialasthma - a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways.For this disease is characterized by the manifestation of asthma attacks as shortness of breath, coughing and asthma attacks.This circumstance is caused by excessive airway responsiveness to various stimuli.Thus, in response to stimulation, they begin to produce a sufficiently large number of bronchial mucus, the presence of which interferes with the normal flow of air during breathing.
Despite the fact that asthma can occur in people of all ages, it is most susceptible children, some of them with age simply "outgrow" their illness.To date, nearly 300 million. People worldwide suffer from this disease, and this number is constantly growing.
During the course of asthma patients airways become sensitive to allergens, tobacco smoke, chemical irritants, etc.The interaction of allergens and airway edema and formed bronchospas
Depending on the cause of asthma attacks distinguish non-allergic and allergic component with a predominance.Occurrence of exacerbation when exposed to certain allergens (dander, pollen, certain foods, house dust) is a clear sign of allergic disease.Asthma of this type is accompanied by symptoms of vegetative dystonia, rhinitis, urticaria.Often the disease is seasonal.
In non-allergic form of asthma have an increased airway sensitivity.Bronchospasm occur at any irritation, preventing the passage of air over them, with the result that begins coughing and choking may occur.
One of the main causes of asthma in children after birth is to develop an allergy to house dust.Microscopic dust mites have the greatest allergenic capacity.A huge number of these mites accumulate in bedding, as well as upholstered furniture, stuffed toys and other items that collect dust.
Usually, the beginning of asthma in children accounted for another pre-school age.In most cases, asthma is manifested in children under the age of three years.Asthma attacks in children develop on the background of acute respiratory and viral infections.In addition there are statistics, according to which, boys suffer more than girls.Wool, as well as the epidermis of animals can also trigger the development of asthma in children.At the same time after the removal of the pet from the premises reduction of allergen concentration occurs even for several years.
The main symptoms of asthma can be identified frequent, painful and persistent cough, which may worsen after physical effort, and night after inhalation of cold air.Expiratory (exhalation with difficulty), shortness of breath is also a common symptom of asthma.It is able to significantly restrict breathing, which can lead to panic in front of the inability to breathe.When the disease observed symptoms of asthma like wheezing, audible at a distance, and suffocation.Rattling formed as a result of airway narrowing in vibration force air passing through them.
In acute and severe form of the disease the patient, usually at the time of asthma attack is breathing by mouth, using in order to facilitate breathing muscles of the neck, shoulders and torso.The fact that the breath is the usual procedure for our body, for which the chest muscles are already trained.Exhale meanwhile occurs passively, ie, without any effort, so that the muscles are not sufficiently developed to remove air through narrowed airways.Thus, the lungs are inflated due to accumulation of air in them.
If there is need for emergency treatment of bronchial asthma should first remove the cause and important allergens.After that, it is recommended to provide access to fresh air, unbuttoned at the same time on the patient squeezing clothes.Emergency care in bronchial asthma is based on the appointment of one of the drugs with bronchospasmolytic effect: Flomax, berotek H, salbutamol.At the same time, as a rule, are metered aerosol inhaler or a nebulizer.Emergency treatment of bronchial asthma can also include re-inhalation, if the effect of the first is observed for 20 minutes.You can offer the patient to take one tablet aminophylline.If the asthma attacks intensified, and emergency care in bronchial asthma does not bring the desired effect, call "ambulance."
Recently, principles of treatment of bronchial asthma suffer some changes.The fact is that scientists have finally identified the crucial role of allergic inflammation in the airways and hyperactivity disorder (hypersensitivity) bronchi.Thus, there are two main directions in the treatment of asthma: emergency care during an asthma attack, and basic anti-inflammatory therapy.
treatment of asthma should be based entirely on the prescriptions of the attending physician, as a course of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, which can be determined only after a full examination and analysis of disease symptoms.
treatment of bronchial asthma mild (the attacks are repeated 1-2 times a month), often requires the use of drugs.In this form of the state of health is not suffering an asthma attack.
treatment of asthma of moderate severity is to use bronhospazmolitikov inhalation.
treatment of bronchial asthma in severe form requires the adoption of emergency measures.This form of the disease is accompanied by frequent attacks (2-3 times a week), as well as posing a real danger to life.Also in the absence of seizures the patient keeps wheezing.
Basic anti-inflammatory therapy based on the use of corticosteroids (hormonal methods) inhaled or tablets.Note that inhaled corticosteroids have a number of advantages.The drug produces the maximum effect, goes directly into the airways and does not cause severe side effects.In the event of acute illness prescribe additional medicines.After the attack of asthma continue basic therapy.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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