23 April

Botulism - Symptoms , treatment , pathogen

Contents:

1. Symptoms of botulism

2. Treatment of diseases

Botulism - an acute infectious disease that is caused by food, chopsticks infected botulism.

The human nervous system is affected by toxins causative agent of botulism, which results in the development of paralysis and paresis (partial loss of muscle strength).The initial period of the disease is very similar to gastroenteritis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine).

causative agent of botulism is quite widespread in nature.It is capable of a long time to be in the form of spores in the soil.From the soil, the intestines of animals and some freshwater fish pathogen can get botulism in food - grain, fruit, vegetables, meat and others.Botulinum bacteria reproduction occurs in the absence of oxygen, e.g., in canned products.In this case the bacteria secrete a neurotoxin - a very poisonous toxin that is not destroyed by the gastric juice.Most often develops neurotoxin canned, ham, sausage, salted

fish, mushrooms.However, this toxin has no effect on the appearance and taste of the food.Of particular danger is posed by the products that are prepared at home, in violation of the technology.

In the external environment botulism pathogen produces spores under adverse conditions.They are highly resistant to various physical and chemical processes.For example, not destroyed by boiling for five hours, allowed to stand the high concentration of disinfectants.The causative agent of botulism in the form of the dispute is not terribly drying or freezing.

Symptoms of botulism

botulism incubation period is usually 4-6 hours.But sometimes it can be 7-10 days.

Initial symptoms of botulism are often fuzzy, similar to the symptoms of many diseases, which significantly complicates early diagnosis.Depending on the main clinical manifestations are the following options for the development of botulism in the early stages.

Gastroenteritichesky option.In the area there are epigastrialnoy cramping.Sometimes single or double vomiting, loose stools.Symptoms of botulism in this case resemble symptoms of food toksiinfektsii.The body temperature rises slightly, the mucous membranes of the mouth becomes very dry.Patients often complain of a "lump in the throat" - difficulties with the passage of food through the esophagus.

Eye option.Symptoms of botulism are vision disorders.The contours of objects become blurred before his eyes appear "fly" grid fog.Sometimes there is a "sharp sightedness" of.

Acute respiratory failure.The most life-threatening variant of the disease.A symptom of botulism is a lightning-fast development of acute respiratory failure.The patient suffers from tachycardia, pathological types of breathing, cyanosis, apnea.It may lead to death of the patient within 3-4 hours.

At the height of the disease symptoms of botulism have distinctive characteristic syndromes.Oftalmoplegichesky syndrome manifest violation of eye movement, bilateral blepharoptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid), diplopia (double vision), persistent mydriasis (pupil dilation).At the same time the patient as a result of swallowing muscles paresis syndrome develops swallowing disorders.First, it is difficult to swallow solid food, liquid, and then (when trying to take a sip of water, she poured through the nose).One of the severe symptoms of botulism is a complete immobility of the tongue and soft palate.Movement of the language are very limited, pharyngeal reflex is virtually absent.

Treatment of diseases

great importance for the treatment of botulism is a timely diagnosis.They diagnose the disease based on clinical and laboratory results.In order to identify the causative agent of botulism, makes bacteriological analysis of residues of food, vomit, stomach wash water.Prior to the introduction protivobotulinicheskoy serum examined blood, vomit, food residues to identify botulinum toxin.

patient with suspected botulism is subject to immediate hospitalization.Botulism Treatment begins with washing the stomach through a tube.Also use high cleansing enema to wash the intestine.Prior to determining the type of toxin that caused the disease, is administered protivobotulinicheskuyu polyvalent serum.Typically, it is administered once.Once installed type of agent, if necessary, further added another appropriate serum.Also, when the treatment is administered botulinum detoxifying compositions used antibacterial agents.The patient need bed rest under constant surveillance.In case of violation of swallowing, it is fed through a tube, used drip nutrient enema.When oxygen deficiency botulism treatment is supplemented by mechanical ventilation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (the use of oxygen under high pressure).

very important to provide the patient with botulism meticulous care.In the treatment of botulism is necessary to carry out prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers, keratokonyuktivita (inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea), pneumonia, purulent tracheobronchitis.

Botulism - a very serious disease, often ending in death.The life of the patient manages to save only at the early serotherapy (using serum) and apply artificial respiration.Recovery from botulism is very slow.Borne illness leaves no immunity.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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