23 April

Raynaud's Disease - Symptoms , Diagnosis, Treatment

Contents:

1. Causes

2. symptoms of Raynaud's disease

3. disease diagnosis

4. treatment of Raynaud's disease

DiseaseRaynaud's - a disease in which disturbed arterial blood supply of hands or feet.The disease is paroxysmal in nature and usually affects the upper extremities symmetrically.Most often the disease occurs in young women.

Sometimes the symptoms of Raynaud's disease are found in the tip of the nose, tongue, jaw, or earlobes.

Causes

There are many reasons that contribute to the development of the disease:

  • compression of the neurovascular bundle;
  • occupational diseases, for example, related to parts of the body vibration;
  • blood disorders such as thrombocytosis (increasing the number of platelets in the blood), hemoglobinuria (the appearance of hemoglobin in the urine), multiple myeloma (malignant blood disease);
  • rheumatic diseases - polyarteritis nodosa (inflammation of the tendons), rheumatoid arthritis (inflammatory joint disease), systemic lupus erythematosus,
    systemic sclerosis;
  • vascular disease - atherosclerosis, thrombotic syndrome, post-thrombotic syndrome;
  • side effect of certain medications, such as ergotomina, serotonin, beta-blockers;
  • pulmonary hypertension.

symptoms of Raynaud's disease

Experts identify three stages of the disease, each of which has its own symptoms.

first stage.It is characterized by sudden, sharp spasm of arteries and capillaries of a separate plot.Reduced sensitivity of the affected area, it becomes pale and cold to the touch.The attack can last from several minutes to two hours.Then the spasm stops and the affected skin gets kind of old.Such attacks may be repeated at different time intervals.

second stage.The main symptom of Raynaud's disease this stage is asphyxia (oxygen starvation of tissues).In places asphyxiated skin becomes blue-violet, there is tingling, sensitivity disappears, periodically there are severe pain.

Raynaud's disease can occur only in the first or only in the second stage.Sometimes, the first step may be to go to the second.

third stage.Developed as a result of prolonged asphyxia.The limb becomes edematous, blue-violet hue.Then the symptoms of Raynaud's disease joins the emergence of bubbles with bloody contents.By developing bladder necrosis (necrosis) of skin tissue.In particularly severe cases, death can not only skin, but also all the tissues down to the bone.

These signs of the disease is usually seen on the fingers and toes, rarely on the tip of the nose and ears.Specific symptoms of Raynaud's disease is a manifestation of symmetry.The disease has a long (decades) chronic.In particularly severe cases may develop gangrene (massive necrosis of tissues).Necrosis can occur in the nail phalanges.

In some patients, seizures can be several times daily, while others - at intervals of several months.

Diagnosis Diagnosis of the disease Raynaud's disease is to conduct a visual inspection and special methods of investigation.

basic research is Capillaroscopy.It consists in defining and establishing the nature of the vascular lesion.

Also, conduct a complete blood count, blood test for protein and protein fractions.

Another diagnostic method is coagulation Raynaud - investigation of blood characteristics such as viscosity, adhesion of platelets and red blood cells, hematocrit (fraction of red blood cells in total blood volume).

used for diagnosis immunological studies, chest X-ray examinations of the patient cells reovasography (diagnosis of blood circulation in the extremities).

In some cases, the diagnosis of Raynaud's disease using the analysis of finger blood flow using Doppler ultrasound technique.

Recently, experts note the high efficiency of the new method of diagnosis of Raynaud's disease - widefield Capillaroscopy nail bed.This method has a high accuracy of diagnosis.

Treatment of Raynaud's disease

choice of method of treatment of Raynaud's disease depends on the stage of the disease.

The first steps were performed conservative therapy.The patient is prescribed medication, most often calcium channel blockers (amlodipine, nifedipine).These medications can effectively remove vascular spasms over 12-24 hours.

In addition, to remove the spasms at this stage apply warm bath, massage the affected area, wraps.The patient should be excluded limb trauma, hypothermia, stress.

Treatment of Raynaud's disease the second stage requires the patient to the hospital premises.He carried out a medical treatment drug Vazoprostanom.The effect of such therapy is usually stored 4-6 months.

When the first and second stages of the disease medication includes drugs that lower blood viscosity, eg Curantil, Dipyridamole.

Simultaneously, the main treatment is further applied physiotherapy methods (magnetic field therapy, variable pulse currents of medium and high frequency), reflexology, psychotherapy.

With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment the patient is prescribed sympathectomy - surgery treatment of Raynaud's disease.The surgeon removes or suppresses the nerve fibers of the sympathetic trunk, which cause spasms of the arteries.Less traumatic surgery method - endoscopic sympathectomy.It is overlaying clips in the sympathetic trunk in the neck or chest.

In the complex treatment of the disease plasmapheresis sessions are used.Using this procedure, metabolic and toxic noxious components are removed from the patient's blood.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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