22 April

Lyme disease ( Lyme disease) - symptoms, treatment

Contents:

1. Causes and symptoms of Lyme disease

2. Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease (borreliosis)

3. disease prevention

Lyme disease (borreliosis) - an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus borrelia burgdorferi (borrelia).

Causes and symptoms of Lyme disease

Pathogens Lyme disease (borreliosis) - a family of spider ticks, which are carriers of Borrelia and infect man directly through the bite.The bacteria are transmitted from the saliva of the tick, for this reason, a parasite that has not sucked or that are embedded in the skin, but did not make the bite, if it is timely disposal, will not give the infection.In the process of removing the tick can not crush his hands to avoid infection through its feces.

The disease has no specific symptoms, so it is easily confused with viral infections (which happens often), diseases of the joints, and even chronic fatigue and depression.

Lyme disease (borreliosis) may acquire acute or chronic form.The incubation period (

ie the period from tick bite to appearance of the first symptoms of Lyme disease) ranges from 5 to 30 days.

period of the disease is conventionally divided into three stages.Symptoms of Lyme disease first stage:

  • feeling of intoxication: headache, dizziness, nausea, weakness, drowsiness;
  • increase in body temperature (up to 40ºC), fever, chills;
  • pain in joints and muscles (common to all stages of Lyme disease symptom);
  • in place a tick bite and around it there is a round or oval erythema - redness of the skin abnormally strong;
  • redness increases along the periphery and can reach 60 cm;
  • in place tick suction is formed pimple or red spot;
  • simultaneously with increasing redness develops cyanotic (marble color) edema;
  • may cause so-called "child" erythema;
  • feel itching and burning at the site erythema;
  • within a few days the center of erythema lighter;
  • erythema persists for 1-3 weeks after the onset;
  • on the site of the bite of the parasite remains scar or scab.

Symptoms of Lyme disease the second stage begin to appear 2-4 weeks after infection, but their expression is observed within a few weeks after the disappearance of erythema.At its second stage Lyme disease causes neurological disorders and cardiac nature, including:

  • headaches of varying intensity;
  • photophobia, morbidity of eyeballs;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • excessive muscle tone of the nape of the neck;
  • sleep disorders;
  • emotional disorders;
  • decreased attention and memory disorders;
  • partial loss of facial muscle strength;
  • tingling, numbness of the face;
  • inflammation of the meninges - meningitis;
  • disruptions of cardiac rhythm;
  • unpleasant sensations in the heart;
  • myocarditis;
  • pericarditis.

neurological and cardiac disorders disappear after 1.5-2 months after the disappearance of erythema.Then comes the third stage of Lyme disease.It is characterized by articular lesions in the form of bone and cartilage destruction (arthritis).The most common injuries amenable to large joints (especially knees), and their localization is one-sided or symmetrical.The third stage of Lyme disease smoothly into its chronic form.

Symptoms of Lyme disease in its chronic form:

  • recurrent arthritis, osteoporosis;
  • benign lymphocytoma (a bundle of bright crimson) in the nipple area or the ear lobe;
  • chronic atrophic acrodermatitis - spot marbled red color on the skin.

Lyme disease a person may suffer for years and not even guess about it and its symptoms blamed on other signs of non-existent diseases.

diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease (borreliosis)

Treatment of Lyme disease, provided it timely diagnosis is not difficult.Although the term "timely" is quite relative, as laboratory research methods can confirm or refute a disease only in 2-4 weeks after the bite.

diagnosis is carried out after carrying out three tests:

  • ELISA;
  • western blot analysis;
  • polymerase chain reaction.

With these studies can detect antibodies to Borrelia, and their DNA.

Treatment of Lyme disease in its mild form (without fever or signs of intoxication) is carried out at home, but in more severe a patient hospitalized in the infectious department of the hospital.

To date, the best therapeutic effect in the fight against Borrelia can be achieved by antibiotic therapy.The scheme of treatment of Lyme disease is developed individually for each patient.The physician selects the appropriate antibiotic and determines the duration of therapy, based on the nature of the disease, the stage and severity.

As a rule, in the early stages of the advantage given tetracycline or doxycycline treatment which becomes no more than two weeks.Treatment of Lyme disease in children is most often done by injections or tablets of amoxicillin.

In the case of damage to the nervous system (the second and third stage) antibiotics mentioned above is inappropriate.It is necessary to use high doses of penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, or ceftriaxone.

In addition, to deal with Borelli successfully used third-generation cephalosporins antibiotics, such as penicillin G and tsefobid.In severe cases, a running intravenous antibiotics.

addition to the main treatment, there is also symptomatic treatment of Lyme disease, which involves the use of detoxification solutions, dehydration agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, drugs desensitized holding physiotherapy.

disease prevention

best defense against any ticks, including Ixodes - clothing that completely covers the body: long sleeve shirt on, long pants, high collars, hats, gloves.In addition, you can use special means against ticks, which we offer most pharmaceutical manufacturers.

After a walk through the forest, park carefully inspect their skin, the skin of children and pets.

If you find a tick can be removed with tweezers.

1. tweezers grab the tick by the head to twist and pull motion quickly.

2. Try not to crush the tick, do not pull it vertically, as there is a risk that it will leave your skin proboscis, head or foot.

3. Wash the wound, clean it with an antiseptic.

Lyme disease (borreliosis) is a very common disease, especially among tourists and nature lovers, the infection occurs in the summer - the period of activity of ticks.

Attention!

This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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