Myopia - Causes , treatment , methods of correction


1. Causes myopia

2. Types myopia

3. Myopia in children

4. Treatment of myopia

Nearsightedness or myopia -this defect of vision in which people normally see near, but barely looks at objects located at a distance.In the world of myopia affects more than a billion people, most of them - young people.Usually nearsightedness develops in high school and college years and progresses without proper treatment.The development of myopia contributes to the weakening of the eye muscles, increased visual load and various injuries.

Causes myopia

In order to understand the mechanism of formation of myopia, it is necessary to recall the structure of the eye.In a normal eye it has a relatively round shape.By passing light rays healthy cornea and lens to refract their eyes so that occurs on the retina image which nerve impulses through the optic nerve to the brain is transmitted.If the focus of the image falls on the retina, the image is clear.If the eye is prolonged or if the lens an

d the cornea is too refract the rays of light, the image turns fuzzy distant subjects.This phenomenon is called myopia.Sometimes vision correction using lenses and glasses, and sometimes only possible by the elimination of myopia operational.

to Immediate Causes of myopia include such factors as heredity, prolonged visual work at close range, improper lighting, combined with poor hygienic conditions, the weakening of the eye muscles, excessive physical activity, spasm of accommodation, change in shape of the cornea, the displacement of the lens at a trauma, as well aslens sclerosis in the elderly.

Types myopia

According to the severity of myopia varies on the weak (up to 3.0 diopters), medium (3.25-6 diopters) and high (more than 6 diopters).But besides them there are many varieties of myopia, each of which requires an individual approach in the treatment and diagnosis.

Congenital myopia may be diagnosed from the first days of life and is associated with abnormalities of the eyeball.Combination myopia generally has a small degree, but the combination of the refractive power of the optical system of the eye, and the length of the optical axis do not provide normal visual perception of distant objects.False myopia occurs when spasm of ciliary muscle, as soon as the accommodation cramp passes, vision is restored.Transient myopia - another false kind of defect that develops diabetes mellitus or receiving sulfonamides.Night myopia correction also does not require that occurs when insufficient light conditions and is held in the daytime.Axial myopia is caused by a large length of the optical axis of the eye.

complicated myopia may be accompanied by anatomical changes, leading to loss of vision.Progressive myopia develops due to the posterior eye gradual stretching.Professional myopia occurs due to a systematic long-term stress when viewing close objects.School myopia in children is associated with hard work with near vision (reading, writing).Refractive myopia - vision defect that occurs due to excessive eye refractive optical system.

Myopia in children

With timely therapeutic treatment of myopia in children, and with a favorable prognosis can avoid surgery for the correction of vision in the future.According to statistics, most of myopia is detected in the age of nine.By 15-16 years of these or other vision problems has already every second child.Children myopia, as a rule, is connected with an abundance of aggressive environmental factors as increased visual load at the early learning of writing and reading, incorrect posture, lack of calcium, magnesium and zinc in the diet, improper workstation setup, overreliance on computer, failure to comply with hygiene,and infection and associated diseases.

Myopia in children requires an annual ophthalmologic examination and measurement parameter eyes.Children's ophthalmologist should choose the methods of correction or treatment of myopia, the complex gymnastics to the eye.Myopia in children requires children visiting an ophthalmologist - This specialist will help you learn how to test the child's vision at home.Together with the specialists you can keep track of the positive or negative trend and adjust treatment.

The list of procedures for the treatment of myopia in children may include ultrasound therapy, laser stimulation, vacuum massage, magntiroterapiya, electrical and other procedures.

Treatment of myopia

Today there are many methods for correcting myopia, which avoid the progression of the disease and the appearance of complications:

- Points.This is a common instrument for the correction of optical imperfections of the eye.In the case of myopia are assigned points, neutralizing the excess of refraction of the eye.

- Contact lenses.Compact device correction of myopia, which is worn directly on the eye.Contact lenses are soft and rigid.

- Laser correction of myopia.Surgery for myopia with excimer laser.The laser beam acts on the corneal layers, giving it the shape of the natural lens, selected individually for each patient.

- lensektomiya.Correction of myopia operating path which is to remove the crystalline lens.Then placed into the eye IOL certain optical power.Only at high degrees of myopia operation can be assigned to the patient.

- Implantation of phakic lens.Remedy myopia - operation, which is recommended for the conservation of natural accommodation.The natural lens is left in place, and a special lens is placed in the back or the front chamber of the eye.

- Radial keratomas.The method of correction of myopia, in which at the periphery of the corneal incision, after their accretion shape of the cornea and its optical power change.Once the incisions are fused, vision improved, however, the method is complicated by the fact that there has been too long a recovery period and a little predictable result.

- Keratoplasty.Treatment of myopia by changing the corneal shape, but unlike laser correction vaporize tissue and transplanted with the donor cornea, after which they are given a specific shape corresponding to the individual parameters of the recipient.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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