Rabies in humans - causes, symptoms , diagnosis and treatment


1. Causes disease

2. Symptoms of rabies

3. Diagnostics

4. Treatment rabies

5. disease prevention

Rabies refers to one of the most dangerous infectious diseases with viral nature.It occurs with severe lesions of the nervous system and is usually fatal.

There are natural and urban type of rabies.When a natural type of rabies virus is transmitted by wild animals - bats, foxes, wolves, jackals.In urban type of virus carriers are domestic and farm animals.Most often the person has rabies after being bitten by an infected dog.

Causes disease

Pathogen disease - rabies virus Neuroiyctes rabid.The animal becomes infectious for 3-10 days before the first signs of the disease and remains so during the entire time of the disease.

People infected with or licks on broken skin or bite a sick animal.The rabies virus is transmitted to man with saliva.The most dangerous are bites to the hands and head.

After introduction into the body through broken skin rabies virus is rapidly

spreading along nerve trunks, reaching the central nervous system.After that, in the course of the nerve trunks gets to the periphery, thereby affecting the entire nervous system.

Breeding in the nervous tissue of the body, the rabies virus causes characteristic changes in her condition - hemorrhage, edema, pathological changes of nerve cells.

In the case of rabies symptoms inevitably comes death of the victim.Only emergency vaccination immediately after infection, can prevent progression of the disease.

Symptoms of rabies

incubation period of rabies in humans can range from seven days to one year.Most often, it lasts 1-2 months.

There are three stages of the disease, which correspond to certain symptoms of rabies.

The first stage - the prodromal period, lasting 1-4 days.Signs of rabies this stage are headache, fever, loss of appetite, fatigue.There is an increased sensitivity of the skin to the site of the bite, neuralgia along the nerves that are located closest to the site of the bite, muscle twitching.

second stage - excitation, lasting 4-7 days.Symptoms of rabies in this step include: recurrent bouts of agitation, a very high sensitivity to the most minor sensory irritation (noise, different sounds, bright light).The victims become violent, aggressive.They have a sense of fear, delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, paralysis of muscles.The temperature at the stage of excitation usually rises to 40 ° C.As the symptoms of rabies attacks are becoming more frequent.

third stage - paralysis.Signs of fury in this step include symptoms and cranial nerves.The main symptoms of rabies are a violation of the third stage of the swallowing function and paralysis of the eye muscles.Due to a combination of disorders of swallowing and salivation process appears characteristic of patients with rabies foam in the mouth.About 50% of patients suffering from rabies.This symptom of rabies appear sharp involuntary contraction of the diaphragm and respiratory muscles when trying to have a drink.

Sometimes rabies in humans can begin immediately with the stage of excitation or paralysis.In children, the disease has a short incubation period.There may be no sharp bouts of excitement and rabies.The main symptoms of rabies appear in the form of sleepiness, depression, paralysis and collapse.Child Death can occur within hours after onset of the disease.At the same time signs of rabies will develop rapidly.

total duration of rabies is on average 58 days, sometimes 10-12 days.Death usually occurs from respiratory failure as a result of damage to the respiratory organs or heart failure.


rabies diagnosis is performed on the basis of the history of the disease - the presence or the fact of getting a bite of an infected animal's saliva on broken skin.In addition, they set the specific symptoms of the disease and carry out laboratory diagnostics.The diagnosis is confirmed after the discovery of the rabies virus in skin biopsies and prints from cornea.Serum antibodies to detect the virus.

rabies treatment rabies

patient was placed in the intensive care unit.Carry out the treatment of the disease symptoms to relieve the patient's suffering.At the same time apply the active supportive therapy.The patient was prescribed analgesics, anticonvulsants, hypnotics, drugs, parenteral nutrition, and other tools to help remove the pronounced signs of rabies.Effective treatment of rabies does not exist.

disease prevention

The most effective method of preventing rabies is vaccination.Preventive immunization courses are held for people who are associated with the risk of infection because of their professional activities.

animals that have bitten humans or other animals must be transported immediately to the nearest veterinary facility for inspection and quarantine for 10 days.If during this time the animal is not dead, it is likely that it is not infected with rabies.

In the case of an animal bite wound should be treated immediately.Area bite to gently clean the 20% solution of the medical soap.If the deep wound, it should be washed with soapy water jet by means of a catheter.It is impossible to suture or cauterize the wound.

emergency vaccination is carried out in the presence of the following factors:

  • scratches, bites, or licks on broken skin or mucous membranes, which have been applied for rabies suspicious or unknown animals;
  • injured subjects, which could be contaminated with saliva or brain suspected of having rabies animals;
  • bites through thin clothing or if damaged teeth;
  • if bitten by an animal within 10 days of observation was ill, died or disappeared;
  • bites of wild animals;
  • skin damage or sick with rabies or licks man.

Vaccination against rabies can conduct an outpatient or inpatient.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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