1. origin of the disease
2. flow babesiosis in humans
3. Treatment of babesiosis
Babesiosis - a disease caused by protozoa of the genus and transmitted babesiafrom animals to humans, and from person to person through the pasture of ticks.They are spread across all continents except Antarctica.In Russia Babesiosis found in the steppes of southern Siberia, in the north-west and south of the European part.
the world there are more than a hundred agents of babesiosis with varying degrees of pathogenicity.Typically, the disease is characterized only for certain animals.In cattle, the causative agent of the disease is called Babesia divergens (bovis), sheep - Babesia ovis, dogs - Babesia canis, deer - Babesia odocoilei.Babesiosis in humans is caused by protozoa of the genus Babesia microti in North America, while in Europe it Babesia divergens.Babesiosis can affect other animals - argali, mouflon, fallow deer, but the above is the most common.
Infection occurs through the bite of ticks through saliva.The source of infection are usually the sick animals, and an intermediary - rodents.In areas epidemicity carriers babesiosis can be from 70 to 100% of the population.Dogs simply causes severe illness and is often fatal.In the 1950s, it was first diagnosed in a human babesiosis - first in Europe and then in the United States, then in Asia, Africa and so worldwide.
Ways babesiosis direct transmission from animals to humans does not exist - a disease transmitted through the bite of a tick with his saliva.The most common disease affects farm workers, travelers, shepherds in the period from May to September.There is a risk of transmitting babesiosis through blood transfusion from an infected donor with asymptomatic or chronic disease.
babesiosis usually observed in humans with reduced immune status.At risk are the elderly, those who have had surgery to remove the spleen, as well as those who have suffered a serious illness.High risk of babesiosis infection in HIV-infected.If the immune system is OK, the disease may be asymptomatic, even if parasitaemia will reach 1-2%.
cases of babesiosis occur more and more often, this is due mainly to the fact that the level of diagnostics in recent years improved in recent years.Moreover, cases of infection in North America, much more than in Europe, in Russia, however, described only a few examples of babesiosis in humans, although it does not rule out undiagnosed.
incubation period for infection of B. microti is 1-3 weeks, but may last several months.It is most commonly asymptomatic.But under reduced immunity possibly severe course of the disease among the elderly in a 5% probable death.
In the case of the soft flow of babesiosis cause chills, fever, anemia and weakness.In severe - the temperature to 41 ° C, the high content of free hemoglobin in the blood, the appearance of hemoglobin in the urine, renal failure and anuria.The acute phase of babesiosis can become chronic, in which case the patient falls into a fever, complains of headache, weakness, drowsiness, muscle pain, dry cough, fatigue and depression, decreased attention, loses appetite.
B. divergens In the course of the disease is almost always sharp and heavy.Babesiosis causes severe fever, abdominal pain, headaches and muscle pains, appearance of hemoglobin in the urine, jaundice.Untreated, this condition leads to rapid death of the patient.
When the diagnosis is important to rule out diseases such as dengue, malaria, sepsis, blood disease, HIV infection, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.When the disease takes a milder form, the patient can recover, even without specific treatment.In acute forms of the patient is assigned to a combination of clindamycin and quinine.In some cases, a combination of atovaquone and Azithromycin can be assigned - it acts weaker, but gives less side effects.In the most severe cases of babesiosis need a blood transfusion.
This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.
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