African sleeping sickness - symptoms , pathogen , treatment


1. The main types of African sleeping sickness

2. clinic disease

3. symptoms of sleeping sickness

4. Treatment and prevention

African tripasonomoz, which is more commonly called sleeping sickness, refers to infectious diseases.Even as a child, many have heard of the terrible consequences of this disease of adventure books by Jules Verne.The famous writer rather colorfully described the symptoms of carotid disease often leads to death.The human body is the causative agent of African tripasonomoza gets bites of tsetse flies that get this disease from animals or people who are already sick.Sleeping sickness diagnosed each year 60 thousand people living mainly in African countries.However, due to the better quality of life and urbanization, the number of infected has been steadily declining.

The main types of African sleeping sickness

In medicine, there are several types of the disease spreading to humans:

  • Gambian or West African sleeping sickness, which is found along
    rivers and near large lakes;
  • Rhodesian form, typical places of tropical deforestation and savanna.

causative agents of sleeping sickness are caused by parasites that are flattened fusiform-oblong shape.Their length is not more than 20 microns, and they are moving, they are moved by means of a semitransparent membrane.

clinic disease

Parasites were inoculated under the human skin during bloodsucking tsetse fly.A minority of trypanosomes falls directly into the bloodstream and accumulates in most of the site of the bite, where a painful knot, called a chancre is formed as a result of the active propagation of pathogens sleeping sickness.Next parasites through the lymph and interstitial space are transported throughout the body.Curious fact that the infection in the human body is constantly mutating.Because the antibodies attack the first wave triponasom dies quickly, and then produces an antigenic form of the disease.In addition, each strain of infection form hundreds of new variants of the parasite.That is why, in the absence of a qualified treatment of African sleeping sickness kills a man.Greatly complicates the treatment and what has not yet been able to determine how the tissue damage occurs.

symptoms of sleeping sickness

As for the symptoms of the disease, the more severe the disease runs Rhodesian than Gambian.Although, in general, signs of infection in both species are identical:

  • presence of painful chancre, which occurred inoculation trypanosomes.Node formed within a week after the bite of an infected tsetse fly.Sometimes chancre is willing, but the result is almost always unexpectedly heals;
  • poor sleep, leading to insomnia;
  • fever;
  • laxative fever;
  • unbearable headaches;
  • loss of concentration;
  • tachycardia;
  • increase in lymph node size in the cervical triangle behind;
  • subcutaneous edema, that hurt hurt;
  • Europeans characterized by the appearance of annular erythema.

When a person takes Gambian disease, the exacerbation followed by periods of false tranquility.For this reason, the infection can remain undetected for a long time, until the manifestation of the effects of damage to the central nervous system.African sleeping sickness Rhodesian species through the most pronounced symptom is detected quickly.Patients with minor changes in the lymph nodes immediately comes exhaustion.If treatment is not carried out, a person dies from myocarditis and intercurrent infections before the typical syndrome of carotid disease.

progression of parasites, the symptoms of carotid disease is more clearly visible.Patients droops lower lip, eyelids lowered, there is a missing face.Patients are slow, not thinking, they are more difficult to perform even the most basic steps.In the latter stages there are seizures, transient paralysis, coma, epilepsy.

Treatment and prevention

Treatment of carotid disease traditionally is the use of organic arsenic compounds, suramin, eflornithine and pentamidine.Specific methods of treatment depend on the stability of the causative agent of sleeping sickness drug, the degree of CNS involvement and the general condition of the patient.Treatment is possible only in a clinical setting under strict medical supervision.

Prevention African tripasonomoza is subject to the following rules:

  • not attend focal place without urgent need;
  • wear light clothes, covering the skin as much as possible;
  • outdoors use insect repellent;
  • every six months stay in Africa for the prevention of the disease is recommended to do an injection of pentamidine.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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