Atrioventricular block - degree , symptoms, treatment


1. degree atrioventricular blockade

2. Diagnosis and treatment of atrioventricular block

Diseases of the cardiovascular system - one of the most dangerous to human life.It is the heart and blood vessels responsible for blood circulation in the body, and any violation of their work may lead to serious consequences, including death.One of the very serious and, unfortunately, very common disorders in the work of the heart muscle is its blockade, in other words, the failure of the electric pulse on the cardiovascular system.There are several types of blockades, which are characterized by different symptoms and different degrees of severity of symptoms.

atrioventricular block is a dysfunction of the cardiac conduction, resulting in a slowing down or even termination of the pulse from the atria to the ventricles.As a result, irregular heartbeat, and impaired blood hemodynamics.This condition is very dangerous and can lead not only to a drastic deterioration of the human condition, b

ut also to his death.

reason atrioventricular block often is to defeat various parts of the cardiac conduction system, which provides a consistent reduction of the atria and the ventricles (the bundle of His, the AV node).

factors of the disease may become intense exercise or the use of certain drugs (eg, injection of papaverine or Drotaverinum).

much more difficult situation is with patients who already have any problems with the heart - coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart disease, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis.The disease in these cases is dependent on the level of injury of the heart muscle, and its degree of blockade.Additionally, complications may develop, for example, the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia, exacerbation of congestive heart failure, cerebral hypoxia formation.Blockade of the heart, which have a regular nature, can lead to the development of intellectual-mental disorders.

degree atrioventricular blockade

Traditionally distinguish 3 degrees of heart block.

1 degree atrioventricular block occurs when slow conduction of impulses from the atria through the AV node, but at the same time, these impulses reach the ventricles.When this degree of clinical manifestations of the disease are recorded and are not expressed exclusively during ECG.Degree atrioventricular block 1 does not require treatment, but it is important to warn the patient of the dangers of severe conditions.For this reason, you need to carefully apply the medication, slows the heart rate.In general, this degree of disease observed in young and physically healthy individuals, including athletes.

degree atrioventricular block 2 is shown in cases where only a portion of the electrical impulses carried ventricles.Its symptoms are severe disturbance of the state - darkening of the eyes, weakness, unstable heart rhythm.There may be a loss of consciousness, in the event that several consecutive pulses failed to reach the ventricles.Degree atrioventricular block 2 may be characterized by varying degrees of severity.The first of its type of the condition worsens due to increased electrical pulse duration of the delay.If the person does not provide the necessary medical care, there may come a complete heart block, and pulses in general will not reach the ventricles.In the second of its type occurs suddenly critical impulse delay, in which every second impulse reaches the ventricles.

atrioventricular block grade 3 implies full blockade.In this case there is an absolute violation of atrioventricular conduction, slowed ventricles, causing poor circulation in the body.The symptoms of atrioventricular block grade 3 include dramatically reduced heart rate, dizziness, fatigue, darkening of the eyes, heart pain, fainting, bluish skin, and sometimes seizures.Basically grade 3 disease peculiar to persons over 70 years old who have a history of cardiac disorders.Unfortunately, the unfavorable prognosis and approximately 20% of patients with complete heart block occurs death.

Also considered blockades there are other classification.For example, depending on the level of violation pulse release:

  • distal (violation occurs in the bundle of His);
  • proximal (infringement on the atrial level);
  • combined (multilevel pulse conduction abnormalities).

Depending on the duration distinguish these types of heart block like:

  • acute (occur in myocardial infarction or when taking medicines);
  • intermittent (occurs against a background of ischemia);
  • chronic.

Diagnosis and treatment of atrioventricular block

diagnose the disease can be at the patient's examination and during the ECG.Questioning the patient involves identifying existing or previously transferred kardiopatology, as well as the facts of recent use of drugs that affect the heart pulse.

main disease diagnosis method is the electrocardiogram, with which you can recognize the disease even in the absence of visible signs:

  • with first degree occurs lengthening of the interval P-Q & gt;0.20 s;
  • with second-degree observed in sinus rhythm with pauses;
  • in the third degree of the disease there is a reduction of ventricular complexes in comparison with atrial 2-3.

Also, in some cases, for the diagnosis of the disease is carried out daily ECG monitoring.It involves not only the identification of symptoms of atrioventricular block, but also to determine their correlation with subjective sensations of the patient, assessment of the impact on their physical activity, and medications.

Treatment of atrioventricular block will depend on the severity of the disease:

  • when it detects signs of atrioventricular block of 1 degree, enough to regularly monitor the patient;
  • with atrioventricular block 2 degree necessary to carry out treatment of the disease;
  • with atrioventricular block grade 3 shows a serious observation of the patient and long-term therapy.

The treatment of atrioventricular block with more severe manifestations depends on the degree of their severity, as well as their causes:

  • in the case of disease caused by drugs, the main thing to adjust the dose of medication or completely cancel them;
  • in case of concomitant heart disease need to follow a policy of therapy adrenostimulyatorov?;
  • in chronic course of the disease with medication (Belloidum, teopek, Corinfar) for the symptomatic treatment of atrioventricular block.

When concomitant congestive heart failure used diuretics, vasodilators, cardiac glycosides.And to reduce acute attacks prescribe atropine or izadrin.

disease prevention involves regular checkups passage of a cardiologist, especially in the elderly.Upon detection of the symptoms it is important to correctly implement treatment, follow the recommendations of experts and the necessary precautions.You should also eat properly and regularly eat foods rich in potassium and magnesium.


This article is available exclusively in the educational purposes and is not research material or professional medical advice.

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